ABSTRACT: During 1982, two years after the Biblical
Research Institute and the Ellen G. White Estate agreed to participate in a
comprehensive study of Ellen White’s inspiration, the Seventh-day
Adventist (SDA) church invited worldwide participation as it honed an
expression of "affirmations" and "denials" relating to
"the inspiration and authority of the Ellen G. White writings."1
This substantive document was drafted at the church’s headquarters and
vetted widely before attaining its final form; during the past
quarter-century it has been reprinted or cited frequently and appears not to
require the level of adjustment needed by earlier statements on the topic.
To interpret the statement in historical terms calls for it to be related to
significant volumes and conferences2 as well as the effervescent discussion
that was initiated by Spectrum3
during 1970 and
intensified by a series of controversial studies.4
During October 2006,
Merlin Burt commented upon some of the literature produced during the past
three decades that has relevance for the emerging discipline of Ellen White
Studies.5 Burt’s survey offers a conceptual framework within which to
analyze the articles methodically collected by Robert Olson and Roger Coon,6
more recent publications of a similar type, website documents and, in
particular, a number of doctoral dissertations.
Currently, Ellen White’s
inspiration is, once again, a focus of significant attention within
Adventism. This reality calls for input from specialists in biblical studies
(Old Testament and New Testament), as well as historians, theologians,
sociologists, and others. The literature that has significance for this
ongoing conversation is too vast to be surveyed in a presentation of this
Part I of this paper limits its purview to only one of
the six conferences listed above: the first International Prophetic Guidance
Workshop (IPGW), held at the church’s world headquarters, April 11-15, 1982.8
The evidence is compelling that the IPGW documents and discussions illumine the
1982 "affirmations" and "denials" significantly; they also
powerfully and constructively inform the present dialogue and dialectic relating
to Ellen White’s inspiration.
The Effervescent 1970s
Students of Adventist history are aware that an unprecedented amount of new
information came to the attention of Seventh-day Adventists during the last half
of the twentieth century. While an entire book is needed to document this
reality in an adequate way, a paragraph that reports an aspect of a 1998 address
indicates some of the reasons why fresh data entered the discussion of Adventist
history and thought during that era.
1) The development of accredited educational institutions, including some
with graduate education;
2) the graduate education of ministers and teachers
by persons who had themselves undertaken university programs;
publication of the SDA Bible Commentary between
1954 and 1957. Thereafter the church at large began to interpret the
Scriptures more faithfully in the light of the meaning and syntax of the
Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek languages in which they were written, and to
demonstrate a growing respect for the context and historical setting of the
statements which were quoted in Sabbath Schools, sermons, and church
4) The efforts of two missionaries from the United States to
Africa (Robert Wieland and Donald Short), to persuade the church from 1950
on to begin a reassessment of its presentation of the gospel, and further,
during a long series of discussions with evangelical Christians in the
1950s, the understanding the Adventists gained about themselves and about
their expression of cardinal doctrines concerning Christ and salvation;
the establishment in the 1970s of an archival center at the General
Conference headquarters and a chain of research centers to serve the various
geographical areas, thus making available primary sources for the study of
6) the maturation of Adventist historiography as a result of
these developments; and
7) publishing by the journal Spectrum of
studies which impinged on Ellen White and her ministry.9
It was within this climate of enquiry that Adventists began to ask questions
of a new kind about their past and their teachings in general, and about the
life and writings of Ellen Gould White (1827-1915) in particular. One of the
indices of this change is provided by the content of the Question and Answer
File that may be consulted readily in the various research facilities that the
church developed to implement its landmark decision of 1972. Typically, most of
the questions relating to the life and writings of Ellen White had been of a
similar type: the use or non-use of dairy products, historical events that
illumine published statements, the appropriate application of particular
counsels, and so on.
Within the decade of the 1970s such queries continued but declined in volume
as a fresh genre of questions were articulated, focused especially upon Ellen
White’s literary practices and the consequent authority of her writings.10
review of these 1970s discussions written by Donald McAdams is still the best
available survey of the period in this regard.11
The controversial study by Ronald Numbers published in 1976
substantial inadequacy of both Francis Nichol’s 1951 apologetic and the
standard perception of most Adventists at the time—that Ellen White’s
writings are more or less inerrant. On the positive side, the Numbers tome
demonstrated the value, indeed the essentiality, of historical research. Numbers
was the first trained historian to publish a major volume that examined a
significant strand of Ellen White’s writings (health) in a scholarly manner.12
George Reid is accurate in his evaluation of Number’s book as "a
thorough, compact, and well-documented study of Ellen white’s role in
Adventist health reform." Reid warned, however, that "its clear tenor
leans toward discrediting much of what Mrs. White claimed."13 While Numbers
was blamed for not using inspiration as an historical explanation, it took
another six years for the church to develop a concept of Ellen White’s
inspiration that consciously sought to embrace the fresh data.
By 1980, Adventist leaders decided that a comprehensive and carefully planned
research initiative was essential and they delegated the task to the Biblical
Research Institute. The General Conference president described and
contextualized the issues for Adventists, worldwide, in two significant articles
published in Adventist Review. Although twenty-one topics were listed for
specific consideration, the most crucial issue was how to understand Ellen White’s
Important discussions lay behind the 1952 conference reported in two volumes
with the confident title, Our Firm Foundation. Similar processes preceded
the Bible conferences trialled in the United States during 1974 and then
transported to and repeated in other parts of the Adventist world. A 1978
conference for personnel serving Ellen G. White Estate and its affiliated
research centers was unremarkable; the furor relating to Numbers seemed well
contained by the vigorous rebuttals of White Estate and it was believed the rumored
claims of Walter Rea were only small storm-clouds on a distant horizon.
Both the Consultation on Righteousness by Faith and the Sanctuary Review
Committee developed significant consensus statements that were published during
the second half of 1980. However, it was soon apparent that the short statement
relating to Ellen White’s writings adopted by the Sanctuary Review Committee
on 15 August 1980 did not address the broad range of issues that were
effervescing widely, especially in North America and Australasia. The
anticipated list of delegates to the White Estate conference of 1982 was augmented by the addition of other church leaders so that the conference better
represented the Adventist world, and the event was billed as both international
and the first of its kind.
International Prophetic Guidance Workshop
Two of the seventy delegates at the 1982 workshop represented the territory
of what is now called the South Pacific Division of the Seventh-day Adventist
Church: Pastor Arthur Duffy was the Spirit of Prophecy coordinator for the
entire region and I was the director of the Ellen G. White/SDA Research Centre
serving the same geographical area. I had attended the first Seminary Extension
School in Australia (December 1957 and January 1958) and heard the extended
series of lectures on Prophetic Guidance by Elder Arthur L. White. I was a
student at Andrews University when the Fall 1970 issue of Spectrum evoked
intense discussion in the classrooms and hallways of the Seventh-day Adventist
Theological Seminary, and I had sought to understand the documentation that came
to the church’s attention during the 1970s. Therefore, I was intensely
interested in the 1982 lectures, discussions, and the 941 pages of documents
that were distributed to attendees.
Since my appointment as director of the Research Centre on the campus of
Avondale College in 1976, Elder White and Dr. Robert Olson had been my mentors.
I had heard Elder White emphasize repeatedly that significant aspects of the new
information under discussion were unknown to him until the 1970s when so much
fresh data was unearthed. I avidly read the papers and articles that he wrote
during the 1970s as he struggled to articulate what he called "a factual
concept of inspiration." I gained the impression he did not know
about the epochal conference that was convened in 1919 and therefore he had no
knowledge whatever of the specific discussions at that event that were
"discovered" during 1974 and published five years later. He was an
architect of the booklet Medical Science and the Spirit of Prophecy (1971);
I was deeply impressed as I witnessed him revising such understandings of Ellen
White’s writings, redoing his presentation of the Shut Door issue, the matter
of literary relationships and other concerns that were central to the dialectic
of the time. I had read the extensive, passionate writings of Ingemar Linden and the penetrating analysis of Rolf Poehler with reference
to the Shut Door issue. Thus I found exceptional enlightenment in "The Shut
Door Documents" that Robert Olson tabled at the workshop. Roger Coon’s
address warned us appropriately of the "crisis in hermeneutic" that
was facing the entire church as well as those of us who daily were confronted by
a barrage of questions due to our responsibilities in the church’s research
Immediately after the workshop closed on 15 April 1982, Pastor Duffy and I
boarded the same jet aircraft to return to Australia but we were not able to
secure adjacent seats. However, the jet touched down during the tropical night
on a mid-Pacific island, giving us the opportunity to walk together during the refueling
process. As we discussed the workshop and its evident significance,
we asked ourselves what we should do about the information that had deluged us
as workshop participants. Pastor Duffy suggested that, since the Research Center
that was under my care housed the relevant documentation, our first step should
be for me to draft two articles for the Division paper; he would co-sign these
and dispatch them to Warburton for publication. On 22 April 1982 I mailed the
two articles to the church’s headquarters (see Appendix I and Appendix II for
the complete text). Duffy deemed the Division president would also be interested
in the articles, especially since the president was also the chairperson for the
Research Centre Supervisory Committee of which both of us were members.
The president was concerned by the content of the articles, to the extent
that he wrote to me immediately suggesting that they be located "in a
personal file." The illuminating discussions recorded during the workshop
and the 941 pages of documents distributed seemed to me to be of immediate
importance as guidance for the church in its dilemma at the time; however, the
president directed that neither the recorded discussions nor the documents were
to be distributed. The next month an article was published in the Division paper
suggesting that Ellen White’s use of other authors was probably "about
.002 per cent" during "a writing lifetime of nearly seventy years."
Instead of the 1982 workshop being seen as a redemptive event, the closure of
the flow of information intensified the growing perception that the church was
During those difficult years, I wrote a number of papers that focused on the
growing body of evidence and its meaning but almost all of them were excluded
from official publication at the time. However, a representative summation of
their content was published in Ministry eight years after the specific
ideas were banned as heretical.17
Even then, the ensuing correspondence in Ministry
indicated no less a stalwart than Elder Joe Crews evaluated the article as
"dangerous and deceptive."18 In hindsight, however, the Ministry article illustrates once again the need for the new data that
surfaced between 1970 and 1982 to be applied to the church’s understanding of
Ellen White’s life, writings, and inspiration.
Why the Workshop is Significant in 2007
A fresh wave of interest in the life and writings of Ellen White has been
generated by the writings of an Australian pastor who is both an effective
evangelist and a winsome educator. The contemporary discussion provoked me to
write to the editor of Ministry as follows.
So, after 25 years of prayerful study, speaking and writing, Dr. Graeme
Bradford’s third book gives a "fatally flawed" view of Ellen White’s
inspiration (Ministry, February
2007, page 29)?
An MA thesis, three books, uncounted oral presentations (cassettes, CDs, DVDs)
document Bradford’s endeavors. Thousands of church members in the South
Pacific and elsewhere (including hearers of his presentations prior to the
General Conference Session, Toronto, 2000) agree he puts the pieces of the
Adventist jig-saw-puzzle together acceptably. Others disagree. Dr. Bradford
contends that two conference-style events (1919 and 1982) facilitate a better
understanding of "the way the Lord has led" Seventh-day Adventists to
understand Ellen White’s inspiration.
Your reviewer, Michael Campbell, will shortly complete a PhD dissertation on
1919. Campbell is the best-informed Adventist regarding this event and his
examiners will assess his draft dissertation in detail.
However, there is no definitive study of the first International Prophetic
Guidance Workshop (1982). But there are the 941 pages of documents that I was
given as a delegate and there are sound recordings of the lively discussions in
which I participated. These primary sources are available, worldwide, for study.
Both Bradford and Campbell should be thanked for their diligence and
applauded for bringing this issue before ministers and religion teachers,
worldwide. An effective "dialogue and dialectic" will enhance our
understanding of Ellen White’s spiritual giftedness. She needs no apologists;
she simply needs understanding in light of all the biblical and historical data,
including that from 1919 and 1982.
Whether or not this letter is ever published by the editors, it reflects an
important moment of the ongoing Adventist conversation that is further illumined
by my one-thousand-word article entitled "Graeme Bradford and Ellen
White" dated April 2007.19
The 1982 Workshop as a Focus of Study
Now that Ministry magazine and other reviews have alerted pastors and
religion teachers throughout the Adventist world to the importance of 1919 and
1982, a potentially valuable discussion can proceed. The Michael Campbell
dissertation was defended successfully during July 2007; it is likely to be the
prime source for understanding the 1919 discussions amongst leaders who had
worked closely with Ellen White. The first International Prophetic Guidance
Workshop (1982) needs and merits a study of similar depth and quality. Until
such an investigation is completed and made available, the following suggestions
may be of some help to diligent readers.
The context of the workshop is well described by the two articles (referenced
above) written by the General Conference president, Elder Neal Wilson, Adventist
Review, 20 March 1980 and 9 July 1981. These two articles need to be
understood clearly within the sequence of events that created the need for them
and shaped their specific content.
In major Adventist archives, worldwide, there are 941 pages of documents
presented to attendees at the 1982 workshop that may be used by researchers,
plus sound recordings of the workshop presentations and the ensuing discussions.
The documents are illumined significantly by the recorded discussions and
demonstrate clearly the nature of the fresh information that had come to the
church’s attention since 1970 and the range of interpretations that were
mooted at the time.
Reports of the workshop by Dr. Roger Coon, Pastor Arthur Duffy and by
me offer a general overview of the event.20
Three other articles that I wrote at
the time, including the two that were banned from publication by the president
of the (then) Australasian Division, offer some further detail and are available
in Appendix I, Appendix II, and Appendix III. All my reports of the workshop
suffer from the limitations that are inherent in the perspectives of a
believer-participant: I was a delegate at the workshop who was intensely
interested in the documents and the discussions.
Dr. Graeme Bradford was not a delegate to the workshop, but he has studied
the documents, listened to the recorded discussions, and interviewed a great
many people (especially in the United States) who have helped him interpret the
workshop within its broader context.21
It is inevitable that further study will
refine the church’s understanding of this important event. However, at this
early stage, I believe the church should be grateful to Dr. Bradford for the
diligent effort he has invested in understanding and reporting this epochal
Scores of articles patiently collected by Dr. Robert Olson and Dr. Roger Coon
give a much wider view of the discussions that produced the various documents
that are cited above. These articles may be consulted in the Ellen G. White/SDA
Research Centers that serve the various geographical regions of the world.
A useful endeavor for those who are engaged in the current discussion of
Ellen White’s inspiration is to seek and assemble symbols that accurately
portray her ministry.22
I have written about several of these, as have others.
Recently a perceptive scholar suggested another illuminating concept that
suggests a vivid contrast: Ellen White’s ministry as an Adventist straitjacket
versus her provision of an Adventist space suit. I estimate that perhaps ten
such symbols may adequately depict the magnificent contribution that Ellen White
has made to the church. One of my favorite symbols was developed during the
intense discussions that climaxed during 1982; see "Landmarks and
landscape," Adventist Review, 27 October 1983.
Christianity and Adventism require authentic witnesses that invite the
attention and commitment of every person, including those who are wary of
institutional religion. This implies the importance of presenting both
the biblical message and the story of our church faithfully, in the light of all
the known evidence. According to The Sydney Morning Herald, there is in
Australia "an extraordinarily diverse and fast-growing Christian movement
catering to the multitudes who reject the institutional church but want to
follow its founder, Jesus Christ. They meet in cafes, clubs, homes, halls, parks
or galleries. Rather than ‘church’, they may meet as families, students,
businesspeople or surfies. They may be affiliated to mainstream churches or they
may be independent. Most are committed and young."23
includes nurturing the faith of such people and all others, including those
whose belief system requires inerrancy.24
Dr. Jim Roy, chair of the Education Department at Pacific Union College,
coordinated a special issue of The Journal of Adventist Education for February/March
2007 that focused on "Quality Schools." Note, in particular,
Dr. Roy’s article, "The Better Plan: Exemplary Schools from an Unlikely
Duo" (see pages 10-15). The understanding of Ellen White’s inspired
writings that Roy proposes allows them to be applied winsomely and effectively
to issues such as motivation in learning and the effective development of
students as "thinkers and not mere reflectors" of the thoughts of
others (cf. Education, 17). Many such appropriate applications of Ellen
White’s writings are available; they invite the church to rise above
controversy and benefit from the continuing significance of her spiritual
This maturity in the Adventist understanding and application of the writings
of Ellen White is already evident in the 1982/3 document that is cited in the
Abstract above, entitled "The Inspiration and Authority of the Ellen G.
White Writings."25 The contemporary discussion about Ellen White within the
Adventist community can only be enhanced by close attention to the struggle of
the church and its achievements during the effervescent 1980s. Part II of this
paper will offer further comment on this ongoing process.
ELLEN WHITE IN AUSTRALASIA: AN UPDATE
Arthur N. Patrick, Director, Ellen G. White/SDA Research
Avondale College, Cooranbong 2265, 22 April 1982
Most Australasian Seventh-day Adventists are distinctly aware
that Ellen Gould White (1827-1915) invested an eighth of her seventy-year
ministry amongst us. But in particular since 1980 Ellen White has been present
in a new way: as the focus of discussion in conversations, articles, lectures
and sermons. Probably never before has her name been on the lips of so many
Seventh-day Adventists so often.
More Adventists are now giving closer attention to their
heritage. Eager to go beyond textbook history to the primary sources, research
has led to a mass of new information: some encouraging, some startling. The
now-famous conference of Bible and history teachers held in 1919 is a case in
point: most of us had not heard of this event until 1979. Even Pastor Arthur L.
White, for almost a half-century a thought-leader in White Estate, had not read
the transcripts, nor was he aware such a conference was held. Which leads us to
the logical question. Why didn't we know of such things before?
In 1973 the General Conference established its Office of Archives and
Statistics "as a result of a long-felt need in the Secretariat and much
urging over the years by Arthur White," according to an April 1982 report
by Dr. F. Donald Yost, its director. The staff is constantly at work processing
materials, that is, describing them, arranging them and making them available
for scholarly as well as internal GC use. Dr. Yost estimates:
The General Conference Archives now contains in its Records
Centre and its Archives about 3,000 linear feet of unpublished materials,
about 400 shelf feet of SDA English periodicals and special publications of
the GC such as church manual and departmental manuals, and 900 rolls of
No wonder that the unpacking of cartons and the unrolling of
packages brings to light significant materials like the transcripts of the 1919
During the decade of the seventies the General Conference
worked diligently to produce a new textbook for college-level classes in our
Church's heritage. Hence in 1979 Light Bearers to the Remnant came to us
from Pacific Press, the first such book to be written by a professional
historian rather than by a minister.
New Data About Ellen White
By 1980 Australasian Adventists were hearing frequently that
Ellen White borrowed from other religious authors in writing her classic volume The
Desire of Ages (1898). Most of us were shocked by these rumours and denied
that such a thing could be so. Little by little choice quotations were thrown at
us until even the most stubborn had to admit the facts. But the end was not yet.
We learned that Ellen White's literary assistants had a more extensive role than
we had formerly understood. Other things also came under scrutiny: the
development of her understanding of the Shut Door, health reform, and other
A book would be needed to document the development of understanding, but
those of us who read the Adventist Review of 9 July 1981 may remember our
General Conference President, Pastor N. C. Wilson, outlined some of the topics
agreed upon for study by the General Conference Biblical Research Institute and
Dr. Lesher is working with a number of Adventist scholars
who will be writing a series of research papers on such topics as: The Office
of Prophet in the Old Testament; The Office of Prophet in the New Testament;
E. G. White in Context of American Church History; E. G. White's Sociological
Context; Science and Religion in the E. G. White Writings; E. G. White's Use
of Scripture; Authority of E. G. White; Theology of E. G. White; E. G. White's
Experience as a Prophet; Development of Thought in E. G. White; Is It Ethical
for a Prophet to Borrow Ideas and Claim Divine Origin?; and A Proper
Hermeneutic for Use of E. G. White.
Already a great deal of this research has been done, and Dr.
Richard Lesher expects most of the papers under preparation will be in hand by
the end of 1982.
The most extensive up-date ever experienced by Australasia on
Ellen White and her ministry was in the itinerary of Dr. Robert Olson and Pastor
Ron Graybill of White Estate 31 August to 4 October 1981. Some have not yet
taken time to listen to the tapes and read the available information. But those
who have done so realize a wealth of new information was presented. The
Adventist Church has, as it were, had bushels of cards dumped on its table in
recent years. Upon careful inspection some of these are being found to be
irrelevant, while others demand careful sorting, arranging and interpretation.
By reason of our personality or our background, some of us resist new
information. Others of us are prone to reach conclusions before all the facts
are known. When deprived of cherished ideas on the basis of fresh data, some
persons react with hostility and anger. Sometimes new discoveries lead to
temporary uncertainty while conceptual adjustments are being made. We may easily
fail to understand the need of our brethren and sisters for loving support
during such crises of faith.
Hence charges and counter-charges can arise, accusations and
suspicion can overshadow us, and the Church we love can be rent by disunity.
This is the age of the cassette recorder, the photocopier, and the backyard
printer. Waves of independently-produced material have swept over us, often
mingling fact with fiction. Pastors, teachers, administrators and members have
often been accused of either heresy on the one hand or of covering up the facts
on the other. Probably, even despite our best intentions, most of us have erred
in judgment at some time during the crisis that developed.
Late in 1981 Australasian Record readers were made
aware that in April 1982 an important workshop would be held in Washington D.C.
Two Australasian representatives were appointed: Pastor Arthur N. Duffy as
Division Spirit of Prophecy coordinator and Pastor Arthur N. Patrick as director
of Australasia’s Ellen G. White/SDA Research Centre. The accompanying report
of the International Prophetic Guidance Workshop has a dual aim: to report on
the event and to invite ongoing study of the materials made available.
In concluding this report a personal word may be appropriate.
The workshop confirmed the over-all soundness of the slow and sometimes
uncertain steps many leaders, teachers and members have taken during recent
years in seeking to understand and apply the new information relating to Ellen
White and her ministry. As a member of the faculty of Avondale College I am
particularly grateful for this fact, for our stewardship of means and lives is
crucial for the Adventist Church and its mission. But more than this, the
workshop showed we all have much to learn both from the Word and our heritage.
Hence it provides us with a new opportunity to draw together in the quest for a
fuller understanding of truth and greater efficiency in witnessing to a needy
SIGNIFICANT PROPHETIC GUIDANCE WORKSHOP
Arthur N. Patrick, Director, Ellen G. White/SDA Research
Avondale College, Cooranbong 2265, 22 April 1982
The existence of so much fresh information about Ellen G.
White and her prophetic ministry probably means that the International Prophetic
Guidance Workshop held 11-15 April 1982 is the most significant such event in
Held at Seventh-day Adventist world headquarters in Washington, D.C., the
workshop had been first announced in 1978. Its seventy appointees included those
within the SDA Church whose work involves them most directly with the ministry
of Ellen White: the fifteen members of the White Estate Board of Trustees; the
eleven White Estate headquarters staff; the chairman and secretary of the
General Conference Spirit of Prophecy Committee; the seven directors of Ellen G.
White/SDA Research Centres; Spirit of Prophecy coordinators from eight overseas
divisions; college/university religion teachers, editors, and others. Seventeen
of the delegates came from outside North America.
Its context made it impossible for this workshop to be just a
business-as-usual affair. Since a similar but smaller session four years ago
certain significant historical, literary and theological studies of the
seventies have become the focus of discussion: Ellen White's use of both SDA and
non-SDA authors; the role of her literary assistants in editing and revision;
the historical and sociological context of her writings; the variety of ways she
used Scripture; the development of her thought
from 1844-1915. The workshop generated some 900 pages of "handouts" on
thirty topics, including the issues most often addressed in contemporary
discussion of Ellen White and her ministry.
Dr. Roger W. Coon, an associate secretary of White Estate,
sought to diagnose the Church's need in what he called "the crisis in
hermeneutic" or interpretation. "Most SDAs probably have a seriously
impaired view of inspiration/revelation," he stated, and thus are in
"danger when they discover factual data contrary to their view."
Indeed, "instead of adjusting their theory to fit demonstrated facts,"
some discard the prophet instead of the bad theory. Dr. Coon deems "our
imperative obligation" is to "readjust our theory of Inspiration so
the theory arises out of the data," and thus "not impose our theory
over the data." A series of papers dwelt on aspects of this general
concern. Among them were:
"The Biblical Basis for a Modern Prophet"
"The Question of Inerrancy in Inspired Writings"
"How Ellen White Perceived Her Inspirations"
"The Inspiration and Authority of Ellen G. White"
"Common or Uninspired Writings"
"Variation and Frequency of the Ellen G. White Visions"
"Continuing Education of Church Members and Providing Bases of
Another important segment of the discussions focused on
Ellen White's writings with relation to history and science. Papers on the
Waldenses and the Albigenses were considered. Topics such as geology, earth
sciences and both the promise and the problems in the area of health reform were
Much stimulating attention was given to matters highly
important within Adventist history. Significant resource collections were made available, including: "The 'Shut Door' Documents," 58 pages, and
"The Fannie Bolton Story: A Collection of Source Documents," 128
pages. Some short papers responded to other frequently-asked questions relating
to the 1907 interview with Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, and the alleged "stolen
illustrations" in The Great Controversy. It was noted that the
correspondence preserved from as far back as 1885-1887 makes evident that the
"allegedly 'stolen' illustrations were secured from their owners in an
honest and businesslike manner."
One of the most important areas of study focused on Ellen G. White's
extensive recourse to the writings of other authors. The White Estate has
reconstructed carefully the titles of some of the books she used in "A
Bibliography of Ellen G. White's Private and Office Libraries," a 50-page
document. A 46-page pamphlet "E. G. White's Literary Work: An Update"
gives a popular introduction to this subject as it is now understood. A
comprehensive example of Ellen White's approach was examined in an 85-page
document. "Henry Melvill and Ellen G. White: A Study in Literary and
Theological Relationships." Articles from Adventist Review of 17
September 1981 were distributed in a reprint under the title, "Was Ellen G.
White a Plagiarist?" An appeal was made for assistance by competent and
dedicated researchers in the large work yet remaining to be done before we can
fully understand and interpret the details of this subject, even though the
major outlines are evident.
Another major session of the workshop dealt with the
considerably new understandings of how the Ellen G. White writings were prepared
for printing. In response to White Estate's request for counsel, the workshop
participants voted that a paper be prepared on this important topic.
Although the sessions began at 8 am and ended at 9 pm, most were recorded
hence cassettes are available. Unfortunately the cost of photocopying the large
number of papers presented runs high at five cents a page. But those interested
in either cassettes or photocopies of papers are invited to write to the Ellen
G. White/SDA Research Centre, Avondale College, Cooranbong 2265, requesting
lists of titles and estimates of cost including postage.
Beyond the facts of what took place we may seek to understand the
significance of the workshop for the SDA Church. The workshop participants were
conscious that some in the church may be traumatized by data new to them and
thus tempted to engage in denial of evidence. Such individuals may declare for
inerrancy or proclaim that no change in their conception of Ellen White is
necessary. On the other hand, workshop participants often referred to those on
the other extreme who are tempted to deny the prophetic gift, denouncing SDA
claims about Ellen White as fraudulent or declaring that her visions and
writings are explicable in non-supernaturalistic terms.
Any individual judgment is of necessity subjective. Yet, even subjective
assessments may aid the search for understanding. This workshop, coming as it
did within a dynamic historical context, sought to hold continuity and change in
creative tension. The participants recognized that there is before Adventism
important fresh data on Ellen White, sometimes mixed with misinformation or
endangered by faulty conclusions. They appeared confident that the Church is
able to verify the data and expose the insupportable opinions. It has the
resources, skills and commitment to pursue this task responsibly and in a
unifying manner. But the fruit of such endeavors could not appear and mature in
the brief space of the workshop. Rather, its development will take place over
The stated purpose of the workshop was "to discuss current issues and
other matters relating to the writings of Ellen G. White." This was
achieved. But there was more. A renewed commitment was affirmed to a delicate
task which demands the pooling of the spiritual gifts of the whole Church, led
by the Spirit and taught of the Word. This workshop may well be seen as a
significant milestone for us all as faith seeks a fuller understanding of Ellen
White's prophetic ministry. As we engage in this process we can be cheered and
instructed by the statement voted at the conclusion of the workshop:
We affirm our gratitude for the way in which God has
presented to the world, through a variety of human instrumentalities, His
all-sufficient and authoritative revelation, the Holy Scriptures, and has
protected the transmission of this revelation to ensure its trustworthiness.
We also reaffirm the continuing operation of His Spirit through the prophetic
gift as manifested in Ellen G. White's ministry.
The workshop helped us to understand better how God presented His truth to
the prophets and broadened our insights into the way in which the prophets
communicated this truth. We recognize in this divine-human process that the
humanness of all prophets does not lessen their God-given authority.
We further reaffirm our confidence in the integrity of Ellen G. White, in the
authority of her ministry as it has been experienced by the Seventh-day
Adventist Church, and in its continuing validity.
Ellen White workshop studies social and historical context of writings
Arthur Patrick director of the Ellen G. White/SDA
Research Centre at Avondale College, Australia.
Source Forum: Newsletter of the Association of Adventist Forums, Spring, 1982, 6-7.
Seventeen delegates from outside North America, including
Australia, Europe, and South America, met with 53 other participants in the
International Prophetic Guidance Workshop held at the General Conference in
Washington, D.C., April 11-15, 1982. In fact, the conference included Spirit of
Prophecy coordinators from eight overseas [divisions], seven directors of Ellen
G. White/SDA research centers in the United States and overseas, as well as
college/university teachers who conduct classes in the subject.
One of the teachers, Charles Teel, associate professor of religion and
sociology at Loma Linda University, said he thought it had been a significant
meeting because "presentations by the White Estate personnel demonstrated
that we have left behind the 'proof texts and selected quotations' approach to
Ellen White studies."
Three words focus the work of this workshop: context, continuity, and change.
The context for this workshop made it impossible to be just a business-as-usual
affair. Since a smaller such workshop was held four years ago, several issues
have become more acute: the historical and sociological context for her
writings; the variety of ways she used scripture; the development of her thought
from 1844-1915; the role of her literary assistants.
The continuing question of her dependence on other authors
was dramatized on the eve of the workshop. Although the workshop had been in the
planning [stage] for more than a year, the first copies of Walter Rea's The
White Lie arrived the evening it began. After the opening of the workshop,
Roy Graham, provost of Andrews University, gave an able, if preliminary, oral
review of the work.
Continuity in a religious movement is crucial, since denial
of its past usually leads to misunderstanding of its present and causes its
disintegration. The presence in the workshop of several life-term members of the
White Estate board of trustees, including 84-year-old W. P. Bradley, gave
continuity to the workshop. Also on hand was 74-year-old Arthur L. White and his
younger brother, Francis. Arthur White discussed principles of interpreting
Ellen White's writings, the nature and frequency of her visions, and several
Workshop participants were also conscious that change was
taking place in the understanding of Ellen White's role and work. Robert W.
Olson, secretary of
the White Estate, distributed a 60-page paper that included
every document relevant to the perennial "shut door" topic. He also
led the group in an exploratory discussion of the role of inspiration in Ellen
White's preparation of a monthly "department" in the Health
Reformer. It was suggested that homely advice on wearing wigs or tight
corsets, written to her husband's stringent editorial deadlines, might not have
the same authority as some of her other writings.
Roger Coon, White Estate associate secretary, spoke of the
need for candor and openness in providing church members with a basis for
confidence. Ron Graybill, White Estate associate secretary, requested that one
of his presentations not be taped so that he could speak tentatively about Mrs.
White's writing skills and the work of her literary assistants, topics he said
needed further research. In that same subject area, a comprehensive collection
of source documents relating to Mrs. White's literary assistant Fannie Bolton
was published in time to be presented at the workshop.
Graybill also presented the first report on a cooperative research project on
the literary and theological relationship between Ellen White's writings and
those of Henry Melvill, an Anglican clergyman from whose book of sermons, it is
already clear, she drew extensively.
Some time was also given to responding to criticisms and doubts about Ellen
White, and to evaluating work which was viewed by some as untenable. Tim
Poirier, a research assistant in the White Estate, presented brief but
informative papers on the 1907 interview with John Harvey Kellogg and the
episode in which Ellen White at first asked for those in doubt to submit their
questions to her and then, after a vision, said she was instructed not to answer
all of the questions.
Erwin Gane, on leave of absence from Pacific Union College
and doing editorial work on new Ellen White compilations, challenged Jonathan
Butler's August, 1979 Spectrum article, "The World of Ellen White
and the End of the World," by saying that Ellen White's prophecies were
unconditioned by her time. For example, her comments on Sunday laws were a
forecast, not a reflection on her own era. Drawing on Scripture, she was
predicting events that will take place at the end of the world, even if that end
did not come in the 19th century.
Jonathan Butler, associate professor of religion and history
at Loma Linda University, responded briefly and graciously. He agreed that her
writings should be seen as Biblically informed, and not be regarded as merely
the product of 19th-century political and social influences. Hers was a
spiritual vision. Still it must be remembered that the world she applied
Scripture to was a 19th-century world, which in important respects no longer
exists, he said.
Jean Zurcher, secretary of the Euro-Africa Division and
member of the White Estate board, presented a paper on the Waldenses and
Albigenes, disagreeing with Don Casebolt's article on the topic in the February
1981 issue of Spectrum. In the ensuing discussion, some of the historians
present said they thought the issues raised by Casebolt remained.
The workshop sought to begin a continuing and unifying
conversation. Some in the church may be traumatized by data new to them and be
tempted to deny evidence, and claim that no change in their conception of Ellen
White is necessary. Those on the other extreme are tempted to declare that Ellen
White's writings are entirely explicable in non-supernaturalistic terms and to
denounce SDA claims about Ellen White's prophetic gifts as fraudulent. Those at
the workshop were committed to fostering a context where change and continuity
could maintain a creative tension.
At the workshop an updated eight-page edition of
"Documents Available from the Ellen G. White Estate," was made
available and may be obtained by writing to the White Estate. This brochure
lists over one hundred shelf documents and books. Of particular interest, in
view of the release of Walter Rea's The White Lie, are the following
available documents presented at the workshop: "A Bibliography of Ellen G.
White's Private and Office Libraries," "E. G. White's Literary Work:
An Update," "Henry Melvill and Ellen G. White: A Study in Literary and
Theological Relationships," "History of the Discovery of Literary
Borrowing," "The Fannie Bolton Story: A Collection of Source
Documents," and "The 'Shut Door' Documents."
Understanding the Ongoing Conversation About Ellen White’s
Arthur Patrick, Honorary Senior Research Fellow, Avondale College.
22 July 2007
To understand the brief letter submitted on 19 March 2007 to Ministry
and the effervescent, ongoing discussion relating to Ellen White’s
inspiration, the reader is invited to note six comments in the light of the
articles and papers listed herein.
1. The nine years that Ellen White spent in Australia and
New Zealand provide one of the useful windows through which to view her life and
writings. See two articles by Arthur Patrick, "Ellen White in Australia:
Why Adventists are celebrating the centennial of her arrival," Adventist
Review, 12 December 1991; "Ellen White: Mother of the Church in the South
Adventist Heritage 16, no. 1 (Spring 1993), 30-40. These
two articles intimate the enduring value of Ellen White’s prophetic gift and
allude to the reasons why there is controversy regarding her inspiration.
2. It is crucial to understand Ellen White’s ministry in the context of
Adventist history and recent study, as outlined in "Does our past
embarrass us?" http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/embarrass.htm
Ministry, April 1991, 7-10. This article offers fourteen points that summarize
the change in the Adventist view of Ellen White’s inspiration,
resulting from a process that began to accelerate about 1970. These fourteen
observations were proposed to the Spirit of Prophecy Resource Committee for
Australasia early in the 1980s; they were discussed vigorously over months,
amended slightly, and approved by the committee as being correct. Then the committee
voted that the data on which they were based and the conclusions they
articulated were to be known by the members of the said committee only. Eight
years later the fourteen points were embodied in a Ministry article and
thus could be considered by the worldwide church. The article evoked extended
appreciation but also a dire warning by Elder Joe Crews that it was
"dangerous and deceptive." The background, content and assessments of
this article illustrate the nature of the processes of change occurring within
the church in the latter part of the twentieth century; processes that are now
documented far more effectively in several doctoral dissertations.
3. By1997 it was clear that Dr. Alden Thompsons’s volume Inspiration:
Hard Questions, Honest Answers (1991) and the Adventist Theological Society
response to it meant Ellen White’s inspiration required fresh consideration.
This need was highlighted by Samuel Koranteng-Pipim’s Receiving the Word (1996),
a book that seemed to ignore much of the data with which the church had been
wrestling since 1970. I developed a paper entitled "Re-Visioning the
Role of Ellen White for Seventh-day Adventists beyond the Year 2000,"http://sdanet.org/atissue/white/patrick/index.htm
and presented it at the annual conference of the Adventist Society for
Religious Studies in 1997. Elder Pipim was invited to offer comments; he
responded by saying that he was too busy to do so at the time, but would comment
as soon as pressures eased. About a year later I again invited his comments. The
invitation remains open.
4. This 1997 paper was placed on sdanet.org/AtIssue early
in 1998; since then I have received valuable input relating to it from many
parts of the world. After I presented the same paper to a different audience
(San Diego Forum), Dr. James Stirling summarized it as an article, "Re-Visioning
the Role of Ellen White Beyond the Year 2000," Adventist Today, March-April
1998, 19-21. http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/re-visioning.htm. Dr.
Stirling’s three pages are much more readable than my 34 pages!
5. To summarize the ongoing discussion within the church about Ellen
White, two years ago I wrote a review of five then-current books under the title
"Prophets Are Human! Are Humans Prophets?" Spectrum 33, no.
2 (Spring 2005), 73-74.
6. Research relating to Adventist Studies in general and Ellen White Studies
in particular is, more and more, being facilitated or supported by electronic technology. For instance, note the source documents made available by General
Conference Archives, Ellen G. White Estate, university and senior college
websites, as well as responsible sites like sdanet/AtIssue. The plethora of
ephemeral and partisan sites make the internet something of a minefield for
the initiated. however, so discriminatory reading is essential. Increasingly,
teaching faculty in Adventist institutions are placing significant
presentations or insightful comments on personal websites; see for example,
that presented by Julius Nam at Loma Linda University. Observe the way in
which important oral presentations are being made available as well; note for
instance, the Oregon Summit presentations by Dr George Knight and others that
are available on-line at
While the presentations at an earlier Ellen G. White Summit in the South
Pacific Division (2004) are not available online, the presentations were
widely reported and helped to evoke at least one passionate book. Research
Centers are increasingly aiding research by producing CDs along the lines of
those those produced during recent years by the Ellen G. White/SDA Research
Centre that serves the South Pacific Division of the Seventh-day Adventist
7. This primary aim of this article entitled "The Inspired and
Inspiring Ellen White, Part I: 1982 in Historical Perspective" is to
facilitate the study of this important workshop, list some of the materials that
contextualize it and that may help to resolve some of the issues the
church faces in 2007 relating to Ellen White’s life and writings. Anyone who
wishes further background reading about Ellen White’s inspiration may find it
useful to check the Ellen White topic menu on the At Issue site: http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/index.htm
noting, for instance, the short summary entitled "Surfing the Ellen
White Information Wave in 2006" "Surfing the Ellen White
Information Wave in 2006" http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/patrick/egw-surfing.htm
and other articles of a similar nature available there. A forthcoming article,
"The Inspired and Inspiring Ellen White, Part II," will aim to build
on this foundation by offering a fuller treatment of the matters embraced in its
1 See "The
inspiration and authority of the Ellen G. White writings: A statement of present
understanding," Adventist Review, 15 July 1982, 3: 23 December 1982,
9; Ministry, August 1982, 21; February 1983, 24: Australasian Record, 22
January 1983, 6. [Ministry magazine archive index page http://www.adventistarchives.org/documents.asp?CatID=32&SortBy=1&ShowDateOrder=True&offset=-1
2 Six of many dates
illustrate the importance of conference-style events: 1919, 1952, 1978, 1982,
2002, 2006. [back]
3 Note the way in
which Spectrum magazine, the quarterly journal of the Association of
Adventist Forums, in the four articles listed below from the Autumn 1970 issue, initiated the discussion that continues in 2007. Ellen White: A Subject for Adventist Scholarship, by
Roy Branson and Herold D. Weiss, http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive01-05/2-4branson.pdf;
Divine Revelation: A Review of Some of Ellen White’s Concepts, by
Frederick E. J. Harder, http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive01-05/2-4harder.pdf;
A Textual and Historical Study of Ellen White’s Account of the French
William S. Peterson, http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive01-05/2-4peterson.pdf;
The "Spirit of Prophecy" by
Richard B. Lewis, http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive01-05/2-4lewis.pdf.
4 Observe the
writings of Ingemar Linden, Ronald Numbers, Walter Rea, and Gregory Hunt, along
with those of many other authors of similar significance. [back]
5 See Merlin D.
Burt, "Overview and Brief Critique of Publications on Ellen G. White’s
Writings and Prophetic Ministry: 1976-2006" (Silver Spring, MD: Ellen G.
White Estate World Advisory, October 12-15, 2006). [back]
6 Robert W. Olson,
compiler, "Periodical Articles Concerning Inspiration, Ellen G. White, and
Adventist History" (Washington, D.C.: Ellen G. White Estate, 1986); Roger
W. Coon, "Anthology of Recently Published Articles on Selected Issues in
Prophetic Guidance (Berrien Springs, Mich.: Andrews University). Coon’s
anthology was developed over a period of years; its seventh (revised and
enlarged) edition was in two volumes: Vol.1: 1980-1988, Vol. 2: 1989-1991. [back]
7 Overviews of some
of the crucial literature are offered in three items that I completed during
2006: "Adventist Studies: An Annotated Introduction for Higher Degree
Students" (Avondale College, May 2006); "Adventist Studies Since 1986:
Fractious Adolescent or Maturing Adult?" (Faculty Colloquium: Avondale
College, 24 October 2006); "Contextualizing Tensions in Seventh-day
Adventism: ‘a constant process of struggle and rebirth’?" (article
submitted to the editors of a refereed journal, 26 November 2006). [back]
8 During 1982, I
reflected on the IPGW in four articles and five hours of lectures prepared for
conference/union conference ministerial meetings. The oral presentations were
scripted as "The Minister and the Ministry of Ellen G. White in 1982,"
October 1982, 60 pages. This paper attempts to facilitate an understanding of
the workshop after a lapse of 25 years. [back]
9 I thank Dr. James
Stirling for his apt summary of my address, "Re-Visioning the Role of Ellen
White Beyond the Year 2000," http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/re-visioning.htm
Adventist Today, March/April 1998, 19-21. For the full text of the
address, see the printed papers from the Adventist Society for Religion Studies
annual meeting in San Francisco (1997), or http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/patrick/index.htm
10 In an important
sense the standard questions of this genre were introduced by Uriah Smith’s
volume The Visions of Mrs E.G. White (1868), a work sold enthusiastically
by James White at camp meetings. The discussion of such questions was climaxed
in an important way by Francis Nichol’s larger, widely vetted publication (Ellen
G. White and Her Critics, 1951). [back]
11 Donald R.
McAdams, "Shifting Views of Inspiration: Ellen G. White Studies in the
Spectrum 10, no. 4 (March 1980), 27-41. http://www.spectrummagazine.org/spectrum/archive06-10/10-4mcadams.pdf
12 The revised and
enlarged edition was entitled Prophetess of Health: Ellen G. White and the
Origins of Seventh-day Adventist Health Reform (Knoxville: The University of
Tennessee Press, 1992). Another edition is anticipated in the near future. [back]
13 George Reid, A
Sound of Trumpets: Americans, Adventists, and Health Reform (Washington,
D.C.: Review and Herald, 1982), 171. [back]
Biblical Research Institute’s initiative was planned May 14-16, 1980.
"Minutes of the Board of Trustees of Ellen G. White Estate" dated 20
June 1980 list the 21 topics under four headings and record it was voted
"That the White Estate concur with the BRI in recognizing the importance of
such a project and that we cooperate fully with BRI, making our resources
available to their researchers." The church’s rationale for the project
is explained in two articles written by General Conference president Neal C.
Wilson: "This I believe about Ellen G. White," http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/believe.htm
Adventist Review, 20 March 1980, 8-10; "The Ellen G. White
writings and the church" http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/wilson8128
9 July 1981, 4-7. [back]
15 It is
instructive to compare the literary, historical, scientific, theological,
hermeneutical, and methodological issues that the Biblical Research Institute
listed for study during its meeting at Andrews University, 14-16 May 1980, with
the official list of "Documents Presented at the International prophetic
Guidance Workshop" dated October 1982. [back]
16 Cf. Robert J.
Wieland, "Ellen White’s Inspiration; Authentic and Profound," Australasian
Record, 31 May 1982, 9, http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/wieland.htm with Arthur Patrick, "The Desire of Ages:
Under the Microscope,"Australasian Record, 15 April 1989, 6-7,
, the comprehensive Veltman study of The Desire of Ages, http://www.adventistarchives.org/documents.asp?CatID=13&SortBy=1&ShowDateOrder=True,
and also the more general study done by EGW Estate personnel, http://www.whiteestate.org/issues/parallel.html.
The wide variation in the figures cited by various researchers shows that any
final analysis of the evidence for claimed "dependency" needs take
into consideration such things as researcher bias, methods used, standards
for measuring "dependency," and language used in reporting
conclusions. Recent studies should be evaluated fully as part of the
ongoing discussion. See for example, Kevin Morgan,
Quick View of the Life of Christ Research Project (1980-1988)," http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/morgan.htm.
See also David Conklin's color-coded parallels which emphasize the
sparsity of actual parallel verbatim phrasing between EGW's volumes and the
identified "source" volumes. These offer another perspective on the claimed evidence for
"dependency," and call for examination of the setting in which these words occur in both
the EGW volume and the claimed "source" volumes. http://dedication.www3.50megs.com/David/index.html
17 See Arthur N.
Patrick, "Does our past embarrass us? "http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/white/embarrass.htm
Ministry: International Journal for Clergy, April 1991, 7-10. [back]
18 See Letters,
"A dangerous, deceptive article," Ministry, August 1991, 2,
included at the end of the above url. [back]
19 Go to http://spectrummagazine.org/onlinecommunity/featuredcolumns/070405patrick.html; note also the online report by Trevor Lloyd, "The Gift of Prophecy
Revisited: A Report from Sydney, Australia, reporting the meeting of the Sydney
Adventist Forum held on 2 June 2007, http://www.spectrummagazine.org/onlinecommunity/featuredcolumns/070621lloyd.html;
discussion by Dr. Samuele Bacchiocchi relating to his newsletter no. 172 on
"Ellen White and the Future of the Seventh-day Adventist Church," http://www.biblicalperspectives.com/endtimeissues/et_172.htm.
20 See Victor
Cooper, "Prophetic Guidance Workshop," Adventist Review, 15 April
1982; Roger W. Coon, "First International Prophetic Guidance Workshop
is held," Adventist Review, 20 May 1982, 16-19; Arthur N. Patrick
and Arthur N. Duffy, "Prophetic Guidance Workshop," Australasian
Record, 28 June 1982, 13. http://sdanet.org/atissue/white/workshop.htm
21 Note Bonnie
Dwyer, "Saving Ellen White: An Interview with Graeme Bradford," Spectrum
35, no. 2 (Spring 2007), 42-46. [back]
22 I cannot recall
that any presenter at the 1982 workshop questioned the inspiration of Ellen
White’s prophetic writings; rather, the emphasis was upon how to understand
her inspiration and faithfully apply it. This important subject is best
understood from consideration of all the known examples of White’s inspired
writings, such as the great controversy narratives written between 1858 and her
death, and the development of her writings on major themes such as health,
education, and mission. These writings do more than portray an inspired Ellen
White; they present an inspiring, spiritually-gifted person whose spiritual
giftedness nurtures the spiritual gifts of the community to which she
ministered. Observe the context within which Graeme Bradford cites the proposal
that Ellen White should be "our guide but not our jailer, our shield, not
our straightjacket," More Than A Prophet http://www.sdanet.org/atissue/books/bradford
(Berrien Springs: Biblical Perspectives), 218. [back]
23 Barney Zwartz,
"Jesus walks into a bar," The Sydney Morning Herald, Easter
Weekend Edition News Review, April 6-8, 2007, 17, 20. [back]
24 Cf. Daneen
Akers, "Writing a Prophet: A Behind-the-Scenes Look at Red Books,
a New Play about Ellen White," and Adrian Zytkoskee, "Red Books: Our
Search for Ellen White,"
http://www.spectrummagazine.org/onlinecommunity/reviews/070425zytkoskee.html Spectrum 35, no. 2 (Spring 2007), 49-53;
54-55. Some of the ground rules that will facilitate this "apologetic"
task are enunciated by John G. Stackhouse, Humble Apologetics: Defending the
Faith Today (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). [back]
25 The document emphasizes
the primacy of Scripture; cf. the concern expressed by Stephen
Chavez, "Are we still Protestant?" Adventist Review, 22 March
Arthur Patrick, Honorary Senior Research Fellow, Avondale College
22 July 2007