15. .See Clinton E. Arnold, The Colossian Syncretism (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1996), p. 198.

16. .See William F. Arndt and F. Wilbur Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), p. 769.

17. .See T. K. Abbott, The International Critical Commentary on Colossians and Ephesians (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1897), p. 263.

18. .See H.C.G. Moule, The Epistles of Paul the Apostle to the Colossians and to Philemon (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1932), p. 109.

19. .Abraham Joshua Heschel, The Earth Is the Lord's and The Sabbath (New York: Harper and Row, 1951), p. 16.

20. .Sabbath 7:2, in Herbert Danby, trans., The Mishnah (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1933), p. 106.

21. .Sabbath 16:1-6, in Danby, p. 114.