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Crosscurrents in Adventist Christology

by Claude Webster

II. Seventh-day Adventist Orientation        

Before focusing on the particular Christological problems in Adventism we need to obtain a larger overview of the movement in order to more correctly evaluate the significance of the parts to the whole. We plan, therefore, to firstly obtain a picture of Adventism as it sees itself in the religious spectrum of the times. Secondly, we will trace briefly the highlights of the Christological development within Seventh-day Adventism. Thirdly, we will pause at the specific Christological problems that have arisen and show why they have caused tension. Lastly, we propose to give a reason for the method of research and the choice of the four representatives that we have chosen.

A. Adventism as it sees itself

Seventh-day Adventism sees itself as a part of the Christian church standing in the tradition of the Protestant Reformation and having its roots running clear back to the New Testament.56 There is evidence that the movement considers itself as a restorer of old truths and a 'repairer of the breach' in the law rather than as some fringe cult bent on startling the world with the queer and the bizarre.57

Seventh-day Adventists believe that the heart of their message is Jesus Christ and His atoning death on the cross. One well qualified to speak wrote the following words:

"The sacrifice of Christ as an atonement for sin is the great truth around which all other truths cluster. In order to be rightly understood and appreciated, every truth in the Word of God, from Genesis to Revelation, must be studied in the light that streams from the cross of Calvary. I present before you the great, grand monument of mercy and regeneration, salvation and redemption - the Son of God uplifted on the cross. This is to be the foundation of every discourse given by our ministers."58

The movement believes that it is to proclaim, along with other Christians, the Eternal Verities to a world lost in sin. According to Leroy Edwin Froom, these Eternal Verities "embrace the basic principles and provisions for the salvation of men, as springing from and centering in the three persons of the Godhead, or Trinity."59 They are eternal because God is eternal. They encompass everything needed to carry out the sacred covenant - the Incarnation, Christ's sinless life and vicarious, atoning death, resurrection and priestly mediation and His glorious return. Central to these verities is Christ's spotless righteousness with which He clothes and transforms sinners. Component factors embrace regeneration, justification, sanctification through the Holy Spirit and glorification. All of these are rooted in God's love, grace, compassion and power. These are the conquering provisions to overcome sin and to banish it from the universe. Thus, for Froom, the Eternal Verities are simply the Everlasting Gospel in essence and operation. Seventh-day Adventism has been called to proclaim these essentials to the world.60

Froom has also demonstrated in his Prophetic Faith of our Fathers that many of the positions taken by Adventists, even in the field of prophetic interpretation and eschatology, are common to scholars of past generations.61His two volumes on conditionalism, likewise, reveal that the Adventist position on life, death and the resurrection is not unique but has support in Christian thought.62 In fact, many modern scholars recognize the holism of man and that the hellenistic concept of the immortality of the soul is in conflict with the Biblical doctrine of the resurrection of the dead.63

Adventist apologist Francis D Nicol has also shown that Adventists are on common ground with the fundamental Protestant position on the moral law of ten commandments as a standard of righteousness as revealed n the historic creeds of the church.64 In fact, :Edward Heppenstall's exposition of the law in Galatians and the function of the law in the New Testament is in the best Reformed tradition.65 Hans K La Rondelle in his course called "Protestant Theological Heritage," indicates to what extent Adventism stands in the light of Luther and Calvin in many areas of theology.66

At the 1952 Adventist Bible Conference, Heppenstall67 presented a paper on the Law and the Covenants. Here he took the position that God has presented to man essentially one unified covenant at various times in the history of God's people.68 This is an anti-dispensationalist view and echoes the Reformed position. The Adventist teaching of one Sabbath covering both the Old and the New Testament eras and dominating the one essential covenant is held as more logical than two different Sabbaths in the one covenant of the traditional Reformed teaching.

The appearance of Questions on Doctrine in 195769 was well-received by the non-Adventist world and indicated what a wealth of theological common ground actually exists between Adventists and the rest of the Christian world. This has often been lost sight of as points of variance have been emphasized.

The voice of Harold M S Richards Sr, pioneer broadcaster of the Voice of Prophecy radio programme, has been sounding over the air for over 50 years,70giving a very positive Christ-centered evangelical note which has greatly helped to dispel the fog of suspicion and to establish the bona fides of Adventism as a legitimate part of the great Christian church. In his book, Why I am a Seventh-day Adventist, Richards gives a clear and concise statement of those doctrines held in common with most other Protestant churches, a shorter list of teachings which are shared with some other Christians and then finally a brief listing of those beliefs considered unique to Adventism.71

Froom has sought to show in his Movement of Destiny that Adventism72 seen in its best light takes a strong stand on the 'eternal verities' such as the full and complete atonement on the cross and the sinlessness of our Lord. For Froom, Adventism has been raised up of God to call the Christian church back to loyalty to God and the Scriptures and the 'eternal verities' of truth.

Seventh-day Adventism has been convicted of its Christian responsibility, embodied in its name, of drawing the attention of the world to the importance of the seventh-day Sabbath and the imminence of the second advent of Christ. Prominent in the early works on the Sabbath was the standard treatise by John Nevins Andrews.73 Through the years a great deal of literature has been produced on this doctrine. With this emphasis on the Sabbath, Adventists have often appeared as legalists and given the impression of advocating the Galatian heresy.74 However, evidence is strong that in spite of a burden for the Sabbath, Adventism has strongly advocated salvation by grace alone through faith in Christ apart from the works of the law.75 More recently the scholarly work on the Sabbath and the origin of Sunday worship by Samuele Bacchiocchi76 has appeared, eliciting much favourable interest and comment in the scholarly world. Undoubtedly, this will encourage a new look at the Sabbath question as an important aspect of soteriology.

Adventism sees itself as a last-day reformatory movement entrusted with the 'Elijah message,'77 to bring all men to the point of decision concerning allegiance to Christ and obedience to God. The challenge of presenting the 'everlasting gospel' in the setting of the three angels' message of Rev. 14:6-12 is considered in a serious light. Whether the core of this message is justification by faith or an imitation of the faith and life of Christ is the cause of some tension within the ranks of Adventism.

B. Christological Development within Adventism

In the aftermath of the second advent awakening78 and the Millerite movement,79 Seventh-day Adventism was born. Men drawn from various religious backgrounds united in heralding the soon-coming Christ.80 The Christological stance of most of these proponents of the message was trinitarian,81 but in some cases the position advocated on Christ and the Holy Spirit was unorthodox.82

In the formative years of the movement the thrust of the message was eschatological and with the emphasis on the imminence of the second advent, time was not taken for definitive statements on Christology.

James White, one of the early leaders of the Adventist movement, had come from the Christian Connection which held Arian views regarding Christ. In some early statements White showed his Arian bias,83 but by 1877 came out clearly on the equality of Christ with the Father.84

Ellen White came into Adventism from a Methodist background85 and this, no doubt, influenced her Christology. Seventh-day Adventists believe that the lifework of Ellen White was blessed with the gift of the 'spirit of prophecy'86 and in the next chapter evidence will be given for her role in the Christological development within Adventism.

Joseph H Waggoner and Uriah Smith were both prominent Adventist leaders who lent weight to the position of a derived and subordinate Christ.87

Ellet J Waggoner, son of J H Waggoner, was destined to play an important role in the Christological development of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. This role will be studied in detail in the third chapter of this work. Suffice it to say that Waggoner's part in the Minneapolis Conference of 1888 was prominent and this conference and its aftermath resulted in greater expansion of the Christology of Seventh-day Adventism.

The influence of William W Prescott88 during the late 19th century and the early twentieth century up to the important Bible Conference of 1919 and beyond was significant. Thoroughly imbued with the concept that Jesus Christ should be the centre and heart of all doctrine, Prescott produced a College Bible textbook, The Doctrine of Christ89 in 1920, which was the first serious attempt to produce a systematic theology around the person of Christ. Froom states: "In the belief of many, the Prescott emphasis constitutes a bridge, a major connection, between what had been and what must be."90

Another important man in the history of Seventh-day Adventist Christological development was Arthur G Daniells.91 Not only as President of the General Conference, but also in the Ministerial Institutes which he conducted in the 1920's his influence was vital. Froom testified that it was during the Nashville Institute of 1925 that Daniells' passion for Christ deeply affected his own life and influenced him to transfer his love from a message to a Person.92 In 1926 Daniells produced his Christ our Righteousness which was destined to have a strong Christocentric influence upon the rank and file of Seventh-day Adventists.93

Largely through the influence of Daniells the latter part of the 1920's witnessed the founding of the Ministry Magazine,94 which through the years was to play an important role in Christological development. The story of the preparation of the statement of fundamental beliefs in the 1930's and the uniform "Baptismal Covenant and Vow" of 1941 is important in the Christological drama of Adventism.95 During the 1940's the Christological crescendo heightened in the continued emphases of men like Leroy Edwin Froom, Walter E Read and Roy Allan Anderson.96 Froom's position was one of prominence and his monumental works in prophetic interpretation increased his ecumenical stature.97 The Bible Conference of 1952 gave due emphasis to a Christocentric approach in the church's re-evaluation of dogma.98

It is difficult to understand theological discussion within Adventism during the period 1952-1981 without reference to Robert D Brinsmead.99 Although on the fringes of the official church his impact has been significant. His soteriological message during the 1950's and 1960's was built on the traditional Adventist framework of the sanctuary motif and embellished with ultimate perfectionism in the end time.100 Along with this went a view of the sinful human nature of Christ without the practice of sin. Traditional Adventist support could be found for his thesis.101

Brinsmead's views were seen as divisive and the official church opposed aspects of his soteriology along with his Christology.102 Adventist theologians like Heppenstall and Desmond Ford103 advocated the sinless human nature of Christ and the contrasting sinful human nature of man which would remain until glorification at the final eschaton.

In 1957 Adventists published the book Questions on Doctrine as a result of ecumenical consultations with a group of non-Adventist scholars.104This book was largely the work of Leroy Froom, Walter Read and Roy Anderson. Although not approved by any official committee of the church it did have general exposure to many Adventist minds.105 It was an important watershed for Adventist Christology. Adopting a classical ontological Christological stance the book has been widely distributed amongst non-Adventists. It has helped to dispel the fears of evangelicals regarding Adventist Christology but as the years have passed it has also served to polarize Adventist thinking between so-called traditionalists and reformationists.

Milian L. Andreasen, one-time professor at the Adventist Seminary, was particularly outspoken in his opposition to the Christiology of Questions on Doctrine.106 This opposition sought to draw support from the past and also acted as a vanguard for resistance in the subsequent years.107

On the opposite end of the spectrum, Heppenstall led in a renewed emphasis on the centrality of Christ in soteriology and the inability of sinful man to save himself or attain to ultimate perfection. Serving at the Adventist Theological Seminary, he acted as a catalyst to train a generation of Adventist ministers in a closer Reformation stance on the nature of Christ, the nature of man, original sin and righteousness by faith.108 As a result of Heppenstall's influence at the Seminary during the 1950's and 1960's and then his subsequent writings in the 1970's,109 one can almost speak of much of the period as the Heppenstallian era of Adventism.

Following on the heels of Heppenstall at the Seminary came Raoul F Dederen and a little later Hans K LaRondelle, both trained in the Adventist Reformation mould.110 Both excellent scholars and teachers, they have continued many of the Christocentric and Christological emphases of Heppenstall and built upon them.111

Far away in Australia, Desmond Ford, chairman of the Religion Department at Avondale Adventist College, likewise taught in the style of Heppenstall. Throughout the 1960's and 1970's he espoused the cause of Reformationist Adventism, believing its roots to he found in the 1888 Minneapolis revival and accepting this as the true intent of the writings of E G White.

It was, no doubt, the influence of this triumvirate of Heppenstall, LaRondelle and Ford which unseated Brinsmead theologically and drew him into the camp of the Reformationists early in the 1970's.112 With the radical reversal in the theological thinking of Brinsmead there came a reaction in certain Adventist circles. It was actually discovered that a fairly large residuum of Adventist thought was sympathetic with many aspects of Brinsmead's earlier soteriology and Christology. His apparent divisive effects had kept many from openly espousing his cause. Now that Brinsmead had changed his thought some Adventist writers and scholars openly propounded aspects of his earlier views which they felt reflected traditional Adventist belief.113 Editors Wood and Douglass of the Review and Herald during the 1970's now supported soteriological and Christological views reminiscent of Brinsmead's earlier views.114

Wieland and Short115 who in the 1950's and 1960's were somewhat in disfavour with the official view of the church, now appeared in a better light. Wieland had always believed that the Christology and soteriology of E J Waggoner of Minneapolis fame had been lost sight of through the work of men like Froom, Anderson and Heppenstall and that a revival of the truth regarding the nature of Christ and 'righteousness by faith' would bring the latter rain.116 Wieland's latest book on the message of 1888 has been prominently advertised in the Review and Herald.117

The book, Movement of Destiny, by L E Froom in 1971 could well represent the capstone in what might be termed neo-Adventist thought.118 Attempting to give a history of the development of certain aspects of dogma in Adventism, Froom came out strongly in favour of the full atonement at the cross and the sinlessness of Jesus Christ.119 His disapproval of the position of Wieland and Short is apparent.120 This work is in the mould of Questions on Doctrine and represents Froom's earnest efforts to steer Adventism into an acceptable Christian stream and to the fulfilment of its destiny.

Closely allied with the Christological controversy has been the so-called 'righteousness by faith' dialogue. The roots of this discussion lie deeply embedded in the Minneapolis saga.121 Leading out on the one side of the issue has been Desmond Ford who maintains that 'righteousness by faith' is a New Testament Pauline expression representing the imputation of Christ's righteousness to the sinner in justification alone.122 On the other side of the spectrum has been Herbert Douglass who maintains that 'righteousness by faith' is wider than justification and includes sanctification and in fact represents the possibility of saints living righteously as Christ did by faith in God.123 Many have participated in these discussions and conferences have been held seeking greater clarity. The Palmdale Conference of 1976 was an important event in this dialogue.124 It is clear that Christology is also deeply involved in this whole discussion. At one stage it was felt that the agitation on these issues was so divisive that a moratorium on further discussion was called.125Further conferences were held by church committees and in 1979 the statement "Dynamics of Salvation" appeared.126 To many this acted as a mediating position in the field of soteriology. The deeper involvements of the Christological conflict did not feature in this statement.127

The discussions within Adventism have been observed by those outside the ranks as evidenced by Geoffrey Paxton's book, The Shaking of Adventism.128 While this work concentrates on the soteriological claim of Adventism the question of Christology is closely linked.129

In order to complete the picture of the historical development of Adventist Christology we wish to quote the relevant Christological statements in the Fundamental Beliefs voted at the 53rd General Conference Session of Seventh-day Adventists held at Dallas, U.S.A., April 17-26, 1980. These statements are amongst the twenty-seven articles of belief which are a revision of chapter two of the Church Manual.130

The Trinity. There is one God: Father, Son and Holy Spirit, a unity of three co-eternal Persons. God is immortal, all-powerful, all-knowing, above all, and ever present. He is infinite and beyond human comprehension, yet known through His self-revelation. He is forever worthy of worship, adoration, and service by the whole creation. (Deut. 6:4; 29:29; Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14; Eph. 4:4-6; 131 1 Peter 1:2; 1 Tim. 1:17; Rev. 14:6,7).

The Son. God the eternal Son became incarnate in Jesus Christ. Through Him all things were created, the character of God is revealed, the salvation of humanity is accomplished, and the world is judged. Forever truly God, He became also truly man, Jesus the Christ. He was conceived of the Holy Spirit and born of the virgin Mary. He lived and experienced temptation as a human being, but perfectly exemplified the righteousness and love of God. By His miracles He manifested God's power and was attested as God's promised Messiah. He suffered and died voluntarily on the cross for our sins and in our place, was raised from the dead, and ascended to minister in the heavenly sanctuary in our behalf. He will come again in glory for the final deliverance of His people and the restoration of all things. (John 1:1-3, 14; 5:22; Col. 1: 15-19; John 10:30; 14:9; Rom. 5:18; 6:23; 2 Cor. 5:17-21; Luke 1:35; Phil. 2:5-11; 1 Cor. 15:3,4; Heb. 2:9-18; 4:15; 7:25; 8:1,2; 9:28; John 14:1-3; 1 Peter 2:21; Rev. 22:20) .132

The Life, Death, and Resurrection of Christ. In Christ's life of perfect obedience to God's will, His suffering, death, and resurrection, God provided the only means of atonement for human sin, so that those who by faith accept this atonement may have eternal life, and the whole creation may better understand the infinite and holy love of the Creator. This perfect atonement vindicates the righteousness of God's law and the graciousness of His character; for it both condemns our sin and provides for our forgiveness. The death of Christ is substitutionary and expiatory, reconciling and transforming. The resurrection of Christ proclaims God's triumph over the forces of evil, and for those who accept the atonement assures their final victory over sin and death. It declares the Lordship of Jesus Christ, before whom every knee in heaven and on earth will bow. (John 3:16; Isa. 53:2; 2 Cor. 5:14,15; 19-21; Rom. 1:4; 3:25; 4:25; 8:3,4; Phil 2:6-11; 1 John 2:2; 4:10; Col. 2:15).133

C. Specific Christological Problems Within Adventism

Having viewed the fundamental beliefs in the Dallas statement relative to Christology one might be led to believe that the Christological issue within Adventism has been finally settled. However, this is not so. While there is general agreement in most areas, there remains divergence of belief regarding the nature of Christ in the Incarnation with reference to the sin problem. Almost all would agree that Christ did not perform acts of sin in word, thought or deed. But did Christ begin where all men begin? Are men born in a state of sin before committing acts of sin? Do men possess a sinful human nature prior to deeds of sin? Is the possession of a sinful human nature equivalent to the theory of original sin? If Christ came into the world in the same nature as man, did He also possess a sinful human nature or was He different to sinful man in this respect? Could it be that while Christ partook of man's sinful human nature that He was not inherently affected by sin like all other men? Or when we speak of Christ and man taking sinful human nature, do we only mean weakened human nature affected by sin and susceptible to temptation? However, Adam and Eve before possessing sinful human natures were susceptible to temptation. Do we then see Christ and man coming into the world on the same level weakened by the effects of sin but in actuality being innocent? Are all men born into the world in a state of neutrality, or innocence, or holiness or sinfulness? Does Christ start on the same level as all men either in the state of neutrality, or innocence, or holiness or sinfulness? The essential question is this did Christ begin life in the Incarnation exactly in the same state as all men relevant to the sin problem or was there any difference?

There are two basic trends within Adventism in connection with the above problem. One trend seeks to narrow the gap between sinful man and Christ as much as possible. The other trend results in widening the gap between man and Christ relative to the sin problem. Many evidences of these two trends could be cited. We wish to refer briefly to two books both published by the Review and Herald Publishing Association within recent years. The one appeared in 1977 entitled The Man Who is God by Edward Heppenstall and the other in 1979, Was Jesus Really Like Us? by Thomas A Davis.134 The titles immediately indicate that the one author would emphasize the uniqueness of Christ and the other the similarity of Christ to all other men

.The general thrust of Davis, book is that the human nature of Christ was that of a born-again Christian, albeit, the truly fully dedicated born-again person. At times he will speak of Christ's weak, fallen nature and of His nature being in a sense a sinful nature.135 On the other hand, for Heppenstall, Christ is completely different from man when it comes to the state of sin. Heppenstall is unequivocal with regard to the absence of a sinful nature in the humanity of Christ.136 It likewise becomes clear that because of their divergent Christology, Davis and Heppenstall end up with different concepts of human perfection.137

These two different trends in Adventist Christology have far-reaching consequences for the soteriology of the movement. Almost every area of belief is influenced by one's departure point regarding the nature of Christ. One's view of Christ radically affects one's concept of such soteriological issues as the great controversy motif, the atonement, the nature of man and of sin, justification and sanctification, the nature of obedience and the issue of perfection. To what extent can plurality of belief on Christology be allowed without impairing the impact of the movement? Are the two basic differences in Adventist Christology at the foundation of the polarization in the church's soteriology? We maintain that it is important to study Christology within Adventism with the view to seek avenues of rapprochement without compromise of Scriptural truth in order to clarify divergences and to seek for a strong united voice of witness.

Not only is Christology important for the internal unity and stability of the church. Up to the publication of Questions on Doctrine Adventists were often under attack by other Christians on the questions of the atonement and the nature of Christ. Froom endeavoured to show in his Movement of Destiny that minority views had indeed given rise to some of these accusations and that the church had taken steps to rectify matters.138 There have been those within the church and on the fringes thereof who have expressed objection to Froom's positions and feel that he along with others has been leading the church away from the traditional position into Babylonian side paths.139 For the sake of the Christian world outside of Adventism it is imperative for the church to clarify the issues and let all know where it stands.

We, of course, must be patient when we remember that Christological controversies have been part of the Christian church since the very beginning of New Testament times. Adventism claims to have the 'spirit of prophecy' but it is still made up of fallible men who must seek to interpret the message of the Scriptures. It is, therefore, not immune to misinterpretation and limited understanding. Along with other Christian churches it must humbly wait on God for greater clarity and understanding. Woe to any church which feels that it is increased with goods (theological truth) and has need of nothing. The Lord stands ready to bless the church as it humbly waits for the Spirit's greater illumination of divine truth.

D. Proposed Approach to the Problem

In the introduction we indicated the methodology to be followed in this dissertation. Four representative Seventh-day Adventist writers and theologians would be selected for this Christological study. They are Ellen White, Ellet Waggoner, Edward Heppenstall and Herbert Douglass. I now wish to motivate my choice of these four individuals.

Ellen G White occupied a prominent place in Seventh-day Adventism from the beginning of the movement in 1844 to the time of her death in 1915. Her influence reaches to the present largely through the prodigious amount of writing which she has left to the church. Seventh-day Adventists hold her writings in special esteem, believing that the 'gift of prophecy' was manifested in her life and work.140 She herself preferred not to call herself a prophet but rather "the messenger of the Lord."141 She had the highest regard for the Bible and believed that her writings should be tested by this norm.142 She firmly believed that the canon of Scripture was closed with the New Testament143 and that while her writings are doctrinally instructive they do not form part of the canon of Scripture and are "a lesser light to lead to the greater light."144

In view of the authoritative nature of her writings for Seventh-day Adventists and the very considerable amount of material dealing with Christology it was felt that it would be very difficult to give a true picture of Christology within Adventism without giving attention to her contribution in this field. It should further be noted that her husband, James White, was a leading Seventh-day Adventist minister, writer and editor as well as serving his church as president of the General Conference.145

The second choice is Ellet J. Waggoner who occupied an important place in Adventism as a writer, editor and preacher.146  He rose to prominence as editor of the Signs of the Times, contributing many theological articles to its pages.147 He is especially remembered for his part along with Alonzo T. Jones in the historic Minneapolis Conference of 1888.148 There is some uncertainty as to the exact nature of his discourses at this Conference but it is believed that the law in Galatians and its relation to justification by faith featured prominently.149 The subject of Christology became prominent especially in his published books subsequent to Minneapolis.150 Waggoner was a leading speaker at church conventions during this period151 dealing with theological themes. He continued his editorial work in England and his articles also appeared regularly in the Australian counterpart to the Signs of the Times.152 There are many in the church today who believe that the contribution of E. J. Waggoner in the field of Christology is vital for the church's fresh understanding of its role and for the forward thrust of the church as it seeks to fulfill its mission. In the light of these facts it was thought important to look at the Christology of E. J. Waggoner.

My third choice is Edward Heppenstall who has played an important role as a leading theologian in the Seventh-day Adventist Church. He was especially prominent in the Theological Seminary during the 1950's and 1960's where he had a moulding influence on a generation of Adventist ministers,153 A thought-provoking and provocative teacher, he challenged his students to think and was often on the frontier of new horizons in Adventist thought. After moving from the Seminary to Loma Linda University he continued making theological impact and his books have added to his influence.154 Heppenstall's Christology is in the classical and Reformation style and has elicited strong support as well as antagonism within the ranks of Adventism. His Christology has affected all areas of his theology and because his views have made impact within the church and represent a strong wing of the movement it was felt imperative to give attention to Heppenstall.

My last representative is Herbert E Douglass, writer, editor and theologian.155 As a college president, associate editor of the Adventist Review and book editor of the Pacific Press he has had wide influence. His Christology is different from that of Heppenstall and represents another strong wing within Adventism. Opposed to the Christology of Questions on Doctrine, he finds himself closer in thought to M L Andreasen and R. J. Wieland in his Christological stance. Convinced of the special role of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the closing drama,156 he has developed and refined a "harvest theology"157 which closely links Christology to soteriology. His view on Christology has given special impetus to his understanding of 'righteousness by faith' and his emphasis on a special demonstration by the last generation of saints plays a vital role in his concept of the vindication of God. Because of. the considerable influence of Douglass in the field of Christology and because he represents what many believe to be the traditional view of Christology I thought it important to include his contribution.


56 LeRoy Edwin Froom writes: "Our roots did not simply begin in 1844 - nor even with the antecedent worldwide Second Advent Awakening and Movement of the early decades of the nineteenth century, particularly the 1830's and 1840's. We stem back, in spiritual ancestry, not only to Protestant Reformation times, but clear through to the Apostolic founding period of the Christian church" (Froom, Movement of Destiny, Washington: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1971, pp.27,28). [back]

57Note Froom again: "We need to sense clearly that we are not simply another denomination, arising belatedly in the nineteenth century - too late to come under the category of the Reformation churches. Neither are a cult, holding certain strange, heretical positions. We are emphatically not a people apart, isolated, and unrelated to God's true church of the past. Instead, we are tied inseparably into the noble line of His designated people stretching across the centuries" (Ibid., p.27). [back]

58 Ellen Gould White, Gospel Workers, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1915, p.315. Note also: "Christ, His character and work, is the center and circumference of all truth. He is the chain upon which the jewels of doctrine are linked. In Him is found the complete system of truth" (E G White, "Contemplate Christ's Perfection, Not Man's Imperfection," Review and Herald, August 15, 1893). [back]

59 Froom, Movement of Destiny, p.34. [back]

60 See Froom, Movement of Destiny, p.34. [back]

61 Leroy Edwin Froom, The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers, Vols. 1-4, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1946-1954. These volumes present the historical development of prophetic interpretation from the early church period to modern times. Comprising nearly 4,000 pages, these volumes are the result of 20 years of research on the part of the author, requiring 3 extensive trips to Europe, protracted study in South America and Inter-America and examination of available sources in all the great libraries of North America. [back]

62 L E Froom, The Conditionalist Faith of Our Fathers, Vols. 1-2, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald 1965-6. Covering 2,476 pages, Froom presents evidence regarding the conflict of the ages over the nature and destiny of man. [back]

63 See Oscar Cullmann, Immortality of the Soul or Resurrection of the Dead?, New York: The MacMillan Company, 1958; J J F Durand, "Life and Death as a Theological Problem," Journal of Theology for Southern Africa, September, 1981, No. 36, pp.18-26. [back]

64 Francis D Nichol, Reasons for our Faith, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1947, pp.229-249. [back]

65 E Heppenstall, "The Law in Adventist Theology and Christian Experience," Doctrinal Discussions, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, [1962?], pp.11-26. [back]

66 Hans K La Rondelle has studied at Utrecht State University and holds the Th.D. degree from the Free University of Amsterdam, where his promoter was Dr G C Berkouwer. La Rondelle joined the faculty of Andrews University, Michigan, in 1967, and currently is professor of theology and Christian philosophy at the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary, Andrews University. One of the classes he teaches is called "Protestant Theological Heritage."  [back]

67 Edward Heppenstall has spent most of his working life in the classroom. He has taught at La Sierra College in California, where he was head of the religion department, and at the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary at both Washington, D.C., and Berrien Springs, Michigan, as chairman of the department of theology. Since his retirement, Dr Heppenstall has taught in the Division of Religion at Loma Linda University and also authored Our High Priest, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1972; Salvation Unlimited, Washington, D.C.; Review and Herald, 1974; The Man Who is God, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1977. [back]

68 E Heppenstall, "The Covenants and the Law," Our Firm Foundation, Vol. 1, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald, 1953, pp.437-492.[back]

69 Seventh-day Adventists Answer Questions on Doctrine, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1957. "Prepared by a Representative Group of Seventh-day Adventist Leaders, Bible Teachers and Editors." This book was produced as a result of a series of eighteen conferences between a group of Seventh-day Adventist scholars and Evangelical representatives during 1955 and 1956. Principal participants from the Evangelical side were Dr Donald Grey Barnhouse and Walter Martin. For details on this episode in Adventist history, see Froom, Movement of Destiny, pp.476-492. [back]

70 Harold M S Richards began a radio ministry in 1930 which soon became known as "The Voice of Prophecy." In 1980 the Voice of Prophecy celebrated its Golden Jubilee. Joined by his son, H M S Richards, Jr., father and son have done much to dispel the suspicion of legalism in favour of a Christocentric image. [back]]

71 H M S Richards, Why I am a Seventh-day Adventist, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1965. [back]

72 L E Froom, Movement of Destiny, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1971. [back]

73 See J N Andrews, History of the Sabbath and First Day of the Week, Third Edition, Revised, Battle Creek, Michigan: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1887. [back]

74 By the Galatian heresy we understand the system whereby man either on his own or with the help of God endeavours to contribute to his salvation by a process of moral or ceremonial acts. The concept is based on Paul's epistle to the Galatians. [back]

75 See "Relation of Works to Salvation, the Witness of Seventh-day Adventist Leaders on Historical Record," The Ministry, Vol. 19, No. 6, May 1946, pp.3-6. In this article 15 prominent Seventh-day Adventists express themselves as to their conviction on salvation by faith in Jesus Christ alone apart from works of obedience which are a fruitage of salvation. [back]

76 Samuele Bacchiocchi, From Sabbath to Sunday, A Historical Investigation of the Rise of Sunday Observance in Early Christianity, Rome: The Pontifical Gregorian University Press, 1977. Bacchiocchi was the first Protestant to complete doctoral work in the Roman Catholic Pontifical Gregorian University in over four hundred years of her history. [back]

77 The term is taken from Malachi 4:5,6 and while fulfilled in the life and work of John the Baptist (Matt.11:14), a final eschatological fulfilment is expected. See P G Damsteegt, Foundations of the Seventh-day Adventist Message and Mission, Grand Rapids, Michigan: W B Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1977, pp.250-253. [back]

78 The term applied to a renewed emphasis on the imminence of the second advent of Christ which took place particularly in England and in North America in the early 19th century and gathered momentum prior to 1844. See Seventh-day Adventist Bible Students' Source Book, Edited by Don F. Neufeld and Julia Neuffer, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1962, pp.933,934; A. W. Spalding, Origin and History of Seventh-day Adventists, Vol. 1, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1961, pp.11-23. [back]

79 F. D. Nichol, Reasons for Our Faith, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1947, pp.43-64; The Midnight Cry, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1944. [back]

80 L E. Froom, The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers, Vol. IV, Washington D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1954, pp.503-554. [back]

81 Froom, Movement of Destiny, pp.146-147. [back]

82 Ibid., pp.148-182. [back]

83 Ibid., pp.175-176. [back]

84 James White, "Christ Equal with God," Review and Herald, November 29, 1877, p.172. [back]

85 Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, Editor D F Neufeld, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1966, pp.1406-1418. [back]

86 Ibid., pp.1253-1254. By 'spirit of prophecy' the Adventist understands that God spoke to and through Ellen White by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit in a manner similar to prophets in Biblical times without implying that her writings form part of the Scriptural canon. [back]

87 Froom, Movement of Destiny, pp.157-174. Froom traces the semi-Arian views of Uriah Smith from 18651898. He particularly compares Smith's Thoughts on the Revelation as the author discusses Rev. 1:4. He notes Smith's modification of view in comparing the first, second and third editions of 1865, 1875 and 1881. Smith died in 1903 and Froom states that in the 1944 revision of Smith's book this passage, together with all others containing Arian concepts, were permanently deleted. Froom also maintains that J H Waggoner held to stricted view of Christ and denied the personality of the Holy Spirit. Ibid. [back]

88 William W Prescott (1855-1944) educator and editor. Was president of Battle Creek College (1885-1894), then of Union College and Walla Walla College. Recognized as a Biblical scholar. Started ministerial training work at Avondale School, Australia, then had charge of Adventist work in England, where he associated with E J Waggoner. In 1901 was elected vice-president of the General Conference. Was chairman of Review and Herald board, and editor of Review (1903-1909), then of Protestant Magazine (1909-1916). Was principal of Australia Missionary College in 1922, head of the Bible Department of Union College (1924-1928), then of Emmanuel Missionary College (1930-1934) - thenceforth writing, editing, and researching until his retirement in 1937. See Froom, Movement of Destiny, p.377. [back]

89 The Doctrine of Christ consists of 18 sections all revolving around the central pivot of Christ. "Each section is comprised of a series of lessons. Each lesson is composed of a series of propositions, followed by a list of supporting texts. And each chapter closes with a series of notes or citations that illustrate and enforce the thought of the lesson." See Froom, Movement of Destiny, p.381. For a discussion of the book see Ibid. pp.380-391. [back]

90 Ibid., p.391.[ back]

91 President of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists from 1901-1922. For brief biographical sketch see Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, pp.326,327.[back]

92 Froom, Movement of Destiny, p.397. [back]

93 See Arthur G Daniells, Christ our Righteousness, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1926 (1941). In this work Daniells sets forth the principles of righteousness by faith in the light of the Word of God and the writings of the Spirit of Prophecy. [back]

94 In January 1928 the first issue of The Ministry, edited by the Ministerial Association and published by the Review and Herald made its appearance. See Froom, Movement of Destiny, p.402. The Ministry has appeared regularly on a monthly basis since 1928. It serves particularly the ministers of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. [back]

95 For the story of the preparation of the "Fundamental Beliefs" in the Yearbook of 1931 and the unified Baptismal Certificate and Vow of 1941 see Froom, Movement of Destiny, pp.409-422. [back]

96 Leroy E Froom was a leading Seventh-day Adventist editor and scholar. Particularly as editor of The Ministry (1928-50) his influence on the ministry of the church was strong. Walter E Read was a leading Adventist scholar and chairman of the Institute of Biblical Research from 1952 to 1959. Read has given great impetus to sound Biblical exegesis in his contribution to Adventist Christology. Roy A. Anderson, an Australian by birth, became a leading evangelist in Australia, England and the U.S.A. His influence became pronounced as editor of The Ministry (1950-66) and as Secretary of the Ministerial Department of the church, first as associate (1941-5D), then as secretary (1950-66). [back]

97 Mention has already been made of the four volumes of The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers by Froom which appeared from 1946-1954. See footnote 61 in this chapter. [back]

98 The 1952 Bible Conference was held in the Sligo Seventh-day Adventist Church in Takoma Park, Washington, D.C., September 1-13. For a full coverage of the presentations given at the 1952 Bible Conference see Our Firm Foundation, Vols. 1,2, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1953. [back]

90 Robert D Brinsmead is an Australian of Adventist background who attended Avondale College for a period but never entered the organized church work. A self-made scholar and a writer of no mean ability, he championed the "Sanctuary Awakening" movement in the 1950's and 1960's and then made a theological somersault in the 1970's to champion the Reformed doctrine of Justification by Faith alone. More recently Brinsmead has moved further away from Adventism by adopting a strong anti-Sabbatarian stance. His present position on Law and Grace is more in harmony with a form of Lutheran dispensationalism than with the Reformed tradition. See Robert D Brinsmead, "The Sabbath and Genesis 2:2,3; The Heart of New Testament Ethics; A Reply to Desmond Ford's Sabbatarian Arguments," Fallbrook, California: Verdict Publications, 1982. Best known today as editor of the magazine entitled Verdict. [back]

100 Brinsmead took the Mosaic sanctuary as a lesson book on soteriology and found the courtyard representing justification, the first apartment of the sanctuary symbolizing sanctification and the most holy apartment anticipating perfection. Linking the Adventist concept of the judgment taking place in the heavenly sanctuary after 1844 with the ministry of Christ in the second apartment of the sanctuary, Brinsmead taught a bestowal of ultimate perfection on the righteous dead and the righteous living in the pre-Advent judgment. See R D Brinsmead, God's Eternal Purpose, Missouri: Ministry of Healing Health Centers, 1959. [back]

101 See M L Andreasen, The Sanctuary Service, Second Edition, Revised, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1947, pp.299-321. See "A Condensed Summary of the Historic SDA Positions on the humanity of Jesus," (Prepared by Herbert Douglass and consisting of selected statements on the topic through the years by numerous Seventh-day Adventists). A non-Adventist critic is of the opinion that prior to the 1950's almost all Adventist authors taught the sinful nature of Christ and His uncompleted work of atonement at the cross (see Paxton, The Shaking of Adventism, p.88). Leroy Froom and Roy Anderson denied that this was the fundamental teaching of Adventism. [back]

102 See General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, Some Current Errors in Brinsmead Teachings, Washington, D.C.: Defense Literature Committee, 1963; Perfection, Washington, D.C.: Defense Literature Committee, 1965; The History and Teaching of Robert Brinsmead, Washington, D.C.: Defense Literature Committee, 1968. [back]

103 Desmond Ford, an Australian by birth and a leading Seventh-day Adventist scholar. A professor of theology at Avondale College, Australia, from 1961-77. Obtained a Ph.D. in New Testament from Manchester University in 1972, his thesis being The Abomination of Desolation in Biblical Eschatology. Through the years he has been a prolific writer contributing many articles to The Ministry magazine chiefly in the field of apocalyptic and eschatology. His main books have been Daniel, Nashville, Tennessee: Southern Publishing Association, 1978, and Daniel 8:14, The Day of Atonement, and the Investigative Judgment, Casselberry, Florida: Evangelion Press, 1980. The latter book, in manuscript form, was the basis of a church convention at Glacier View, Colorado, (August 10-15, 1980), to examine his views. Subsequent to that meeting Ford has lost his credentials as a teacher and minister in the church but has retained his membership. The aftermath of this development has been somewhat divisive. [back]

104 For the recital of this episode in Adventist history see Froom, Movement of Destiny, pp.476-492. See also footnote 69 of this chapter. [back]

105 See Questions on Doctrine, pp.7-10. [back]

106 Milian L Andreasen, Letters to the Churches, Queensland, Australia: Judgment Hour Publishing Company, [n.d.]. These were a series of unofficial 'letters' which Andreasen circulated expressing his personal opposition to what he felt were departures from traditional Adventist views on the nature of Christ and the atonement. Subsequently these 'letters' were privately published.  [back]

107 Adventist editors and scholars like Kenneth Wood, editor of the Adventist Review, H Douglass, former associate editor of the Adventist Review and now book editor of the Pacific Press, and C Mervyn Maxwell, Professor of Church History at the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary, have basically followed Andreasen in opposition to the Christology of Questions on Doctrine. Note, for example, the following from a letter written by H E Douglass to E C Webster on January 18, 1973: "As you no doubt know, there are many, many denominational leaders on many campuses and in many leading offices around the world who do not feel that the book Questions on Doctrine adequately handled this central problem in Christian theology. There will be much more discussion of this as time goes by, I am sure." [back]

108 Heppenstall has been a leading Adventist theologian who takes a strong Christocentric stance maintaining the sinlessness of the human nature of Christ versus the inherent sinfulness of man and his inability to attain to ultimate perfection in this life apart from the merits of Christ. See E Heppenstall, "Let Us Go On Unto Perfection," Perfection, the Impossible Possibility, Nashville: Southern Publishing Association, 1975, pp. 61-88. [back]

109 For details on Heppenstall's main works see footnote 67 of this chapter. [back]

110 By 'Adventist Reformation mould' I mean that type of theology which lays emphasis on the inherent sinfulness of man, the contrasting sinlessness of Christ, the substitutionary atonement of the cross and the primacy of Justification by Faith. [back]

111 Raoul F Dederen, of Roman Catholic background, became a Seventh-day Adventist as a young man. With a thorough European educational background he trained for the Adventist ministry and worked as a minister and later as a trainer of ministers at the Seventh-day Adventist College at Collognes, France. After completing a doctoral degree in Historical Theology at the University of Geneva, he was called to lecture at the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary at Andrews University in 1964. Upon the departure of Heppenstall in 1966, Dederen was appointed as chairman of the Department of Theology and Christian Philosophy, a post he still holds in 1982 at the time of writing. Dederen has consistently taught a course in Christology at the Seminary during these years and has had an important and moulding influence on the ministry of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. [back]

112 See R D Brinsmead, A Review of the Awakening Message, 2 parts, [n.p.] , 1972-3; Geoffrey J Paxton, The Shaking of Adventism, Delaware: Zenith Publishers, Inc., 1977, pp.121-128. [back]

113 See Paxton, The Shaking of Adventism, pp.125-145. [back]

114 H E Douglass, "Why God is Urgent and Yet Waits, Review and Herald, special issue, "Righteousness by Faith" (May 16, 1974); Jesus, the Model Man, Adult Sabbath School Lesson Quarterly, April-June 1977; "Men of Faith-The Showcase of God's Grace," Perfection, the Impossible Possibility, pp.13-56. Kenneth H Wood, "Jesus Made the Way Plain in Parables," Review and Herald, special issue, "Righteousness by Faith" (May 16, 1974); "For Your Information," Pt. 1, Review and Herald, October 21, 1976; "For Your Information," Parts 2-4, Review and Herald, October 28, 1976, November 4, 1976, November 18, 1976; "Fit for a Wedding," Review and Herald, December 2, 1976. [back]

115 Donald K Short and Robert J Wieland, 1888 Reexamined, Baker, Oregon: The Adventist Forum Association, [1966?]. Early in the 1950's the above two missionaries from East Africa returned to the U.S.A. on furlough and while studying at the Seventh-day Adventist Seminary in Washington, prepared a document entitled 1888 Re-examined. They maintained that the church had rejected the message of the Lord in 1888 and corporate confession of the guilt was necessary. Notice their statement on Christ: "He had, therefore, no natural born righteousness any more than we have; otherwise He could not have partaken of our nature, but would have had an infinite and wholly extra-human advantage which would have rendered faith unnecessary" (p.187). Notice the statement on perfection: "The primary end and purpose of the Advent Movement in world history was the attainment by a remnant church to a perfect character which would completely vindicate the sacrifice of Calvary. No other community of 'saints' in all history had attained to such a maturity of experience. This last community of saints should become fully worthy to constitute the population of a New Jerusalem,' having overcome all the mistakes of all previous generations of the professed people of God" (pp.9,10). [back]

116 The "Latter rain" is a term applied to a special bestowal of the Holy Spirit upon the church in the end-time, enabling Christians to witness mightily for Christ. This results in the earth being 'lightened' with the message of the gospel, enabling all men to decide between truth and error. [back]

117 See Adventist Review, May 29, 1980, p.17. The advert speaks of Wieland and Short as "two long-time advocates of Christ's righteousness." This periodical went through several changes in nomenclature. At its inception in 1850 the name was Second Advent Review, and Sabbath Herald; in 1851 the name changed to The Advent Review, and Sabbath Herald; in 1861 to Review and Herald; in 1971 it went back to the old name Advent Review and Sabbath Herald; and finally in 1978 it assumed its current name, Adventist Review. Perhaps the name most widely used to identify the magazine in the United States is Review and Herald. [back]

118 There is controversy as to whether Froom represents enlightened, progressive Adventism built on the best in the past or whether he represents a subtle departure from the faith. [back]

119 Froom, Movement of Destiny, pp.493-517. [back]

120 Ibid., pp.357-374. [back]

121 A Bible Institute was held at Minneapolis from October 10-17, 1888, followed by a General Conference Session from October 17-November 4. At these meetings E. J. Waggoner and A. T. Jones featured prominently and the emphasis on justification by faith in Jesus Christ was strong. [back]

122 D Ford, "The Scope and Limits of the Pauline Expression 'Righteousness by Faith'," Documents From the Palmdale Conference on Righteousness by Faith,' pp.1-13. [back]

123 That is exactly what the process, righteousness by faith, is all about - to produce...someone just like Jesus," (H Douglass, Perfection, the Impossible Possibility, p.29). [back]

124 See "Christ our Righteousness," Review and Herald, May 27, 1976, pp.4-7. At the Palmdale Conference a group of Adventist theologians, editors and administrators from Australia and the U.S.A. met to discuss the issues of the 'righteousness by faith' controversy. A statement was issued after the Conference. [back]

125 N C Wilson, "An Open Letter to the Church," Adventist Review, May 24, 1979. In this letter, Neal C Wilson, president of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, appealed for a halt to the debate on the subject. He announced that the church intended to study the issues in Conference and appealed for patience and prayerful study. [back]

126 The Dynamics of Salvation," Adventist Review, July 31, 1980, pp.3-8. [back]

127 Ibid. In "Background on the statement 'The Dynamics of Salvation'," we quote: "Certain aspects of this inexhaustible theme, such as the nature of Christ, perfection, and original sin, are not dealt with in detail in this paper" (p.3). [back]

128 G J Paxton, The Shaking of Adventism, Wilmington, Delaware: Zenith Pub. Inc., 1977. [back]

129 Ibid., especially pp.82-96. [back]

130 General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, Seventh-day Adventist Church Manual, Revised 1976, pp.32-39.[back]

131 Adventist Review, May 1, 1980, p.23. [back]

132 Adventist Review, May 1, 1980, p.23. [back]

133 Ibid., p.25. [back]

134 Thomas A Davis, Was Jesus Really Like Us?, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1979; Edward Heppenstall, The Man Who is God, Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1977. [back]

135 Note the thought of Davis: "We must keep before us the concept around which our whole investigation points, that Jesus had a nature like that of a born-again person" (Davis, Was Jesus Really Like Us? p.53). Speaking of Jesus' success in defeating Satan, Davis says of Christ: "He never gave His weak, fallen nature a chance" (Ibid., p.70). Then Davis also speaks of Christ's nature as one "affected by sin just as fully as our natures are touched by sin, and in that sense was a sinful nature. Yet He had no sin" (Ibid., p.80). One does wonder if there is not an element of contradiction in the book when one reads elsewhere: "I suggest that Jesus was born with a spiritual nature and a will as unfallen as that of Adam before the Fall" (Ibid., p.96). [back]

136 In view of the fact that we will be devoting an entire chapter to the Christology of Heppenstall we will not enlarge now on his position, except to give one quote to illustrate his contrasting view to that of Davis. Heppenstall writes: "The connection of all other men with Adam has produced in them a fallen, human nature with tendencies to sin. Christ is the one exception in that He had no such inclination or bent to sin" (Heppenstall, The Man Who is God, p.132). [back]

137 In reading Davis one does come away with the impression that for him sin is to be completely eradicated from the Christian's life. Concerning man Davis speaks of "a life in which all sin is subdued" (Davis, Was Jesus Really Like Us? p.120); of "no sin, no weakness, no besetment - of thought, action, word, impulse or feeling -that we cannot overcome" (Ibid., p.129); and that there is no excuse "for continuing in sin in any way or in any degree" (Ibid., p.156). We will discover when dealing with Heppenstall that his doctrine of Christian perfection has a different nuance. More on that in the Heppenstall chapter. [back]

138 Froom, Movement of Destiny, pp.148-181, 409-492. [back]

139 Fred T Wright, The Destiny of a Movement, Palmwoods, Queensland: The Judgment Hour Publishing Company, 1976. [back]

140 We refer the reader to footnote 86 of this chapter. [back]

141 E G White, "A Messenger," Review and Herald, July 26, 1906. [back]

142 E G White, "A Missionary Appeal," Review and Herald, December 15, 1885. "The Bible and the Bible alone, is to be our creed, the sole bond of union;" [back]

143 E G White, The Great Controversy Between Christ and Satan, Mountain View, California: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1911, pp. v-xii. "In like manner, after the close of the canon of Scripture, the Holy Spirit was still to continue its work, to enlighten, warn, and comfort the children of God" (p.viii). [back]

144 E G White, Colporteur Ministry, Mountain View, California: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1953, p.125 [back]

145 Seventh-day Adventist Encyclopedia, Commentary Reference Series, Vol. 10, pp.1419-1425. [back]

146 Ibid., p.1385. [back]

147 Became assistant editor of the Signs of the Times in 1884 and editor in 1886,which post he held until May 1891. From 1892-1903 he was editor of the British Present Truth. [back]

148 The Minneapolis Bible Institute was conducted from October 10-17, with the General Conference following from October 17-November 4, 1888. [back]

149 For some discussion regarding the content at the Conference see footnote 56 in chapter three where we deal with the Christology of Waggoner. [back]

150 E. J. Waggoner, Christ and His Righteousness, Mountain View: Pacific Press Publishing Association, 1890; The Gospel in Creation, Battle Creek, Michigan: International Tract Society, 1895; The Glad Tidings, Oakland, California: Pacific Press Publishing Company, 1900; The Everlasting Covenant, London: International Tract Society, 1900. [back]

151 E. J. Waggoner presented 16 sermons on the Romans at the 1891 General Conference Session and studies on Hebrews at the 1897 session. He also at the 1899, 1901 and 1903 sessions. [back]

152 Became editor of the Present Truth in England in 1892 and continued until 1903. Articles by E. J. Waggoner were used frequently in the Australian Bible Echo and Signs of the Times. [back]

153 Edward Heppenstall was professor of theology at the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary from 1955-1967. See footnotes 67 and 108 of this chapter. [back]

154 Mention has already been made of his books, Our High Priest, Salvation Unlimited and The Man Who is God. Heppenstall has also been a regular contributor to periodicals like The Ministry and These Times. [back]

155 We will give a historical sketch of Douglass in the chapter devoted to him. He was associate editor of the Review and Herald from 1970-1976. [back]

156 H. E. Douglass, "The Unique Contribution of Adventist Eschatology," North American Bible Conference, 1974, Washington, D.C.: General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 1974. [back]

157 'Harvest Theology' is based on the parable of the growing seed in Mark 4:26-29. When the grain is ripe the sickle is put to it because the harvest is come. This concept maintains that eventually a final generation of saints will reach such a point of spiritual maturity that the harvest of the earth will be ripe and Christ will return.  [back]

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