At Issue Index   Table of Contents   Previous   Next

Questions On Doctrine


Problems Pertaining to Daniel 8



What scriptural and historical basis do Seventh-day Adventists have for teaching (1) that the 2300 days ("evenings-mornings") of Daniel 8:14 symbolize years; (2) that the little horn coming out of one of the four horns of the he-goat (verse 9) stands for Rome; and (3) that the sanctuary of verses 11-14, which was to be trodden underfoot and then be "cleansed," or "justified," is the heavenly sanctuary? Are you not practically alone in holding such a concept?


As these questions all pertain to the vision of Daniel 8, it will be desirable to survey the chapter as a whole, in order to have the background for our position on these related points.

1. A Survey of Chapter 8.—Daniel here gives a consecutive account of the prophetic symbolism dramatically portrayed before him in vision. But along with this fact it should be borne in mind that this chapter parallels the vision of the four-part metallic image of chapter 2, symbolizing four world empires, and the four beast-kingdoms of Daniel 7, which also portray Babylonia, Medo-Persia,* Grecia, and Rome

*This compound name is employed in conformity with the angelic interpretation ("Media and Persia," verse 20), and to emphasize the fact that neither here nor elsewhere does Daniel conceive of an independently existing Median Empire—a prerequisite to the "Grecian View" of the fourth kingdom of Daniel 2 and 7, which will be discussed under Question 28. The term "Medo-Persia" is currently employed by such conservative scholars as Robert D. Culver (1944), Edward J. Young (1949), Herbert C. Leupold (1949), and the Catholic Commentary (1955), as well as a large number of earlier men, such as Charles Boutflower (1922), Charles H. Wright (1906), and a host of great scholars, such as Keil (1869) and Zockler (1870), and reaching back to Reformation times.


The major difference is that the vision of chapter 8 begins with Medo-Persia.

Daniel first sees a ram with two horns. This is explicitly identified by the interpreting angel as Medo-Persia, with Persia predominant (compare verses 3, 4, and 20). It pushed, or butted, westward, northward, and southward, increasing in power and working out its own will.

Next, a shaggy "he goat" came with astonishing speed from the west. This represented Greco-Macedonia (compare verses 5 and 21), the goat being the national emblem of Greece, just as the ram was the identifying emblem of Medo-Persia. The Grecian goat's "notable" horn signified this kingdom under Alexander the Great (verses 5, 21), whose dominion extended from Greco-Macedonia to northwestern India, and from Egypt to beyond the Caspian Sea—the largest empire the world had yet known. There can be no valid question as to the identification, inasmuch as it is given by inspiration.

Then in 323 B.C., at the height of his power, Alexander died. At first the leading generals tried to organize the vast territory under regencies in the name of Alexander's half-witted half brother and Alexander's posthumous son. But after two decades of intermittent warfare between rivals, the two strongest bidders for centralized power were decisively defeated


by a coalition of four who divided the empire into four kingdoms. These divisions (three of which survived as the monarchies of Macedonia, Egypt, and Syria, until the Romans took over) remarkably fulfilled the prophetic specifications of four horns toward the four points of the compass—Ptolemy holding Egypt, Palestine, and part of Syria, toward the south; Cassander ruling Macedonia and Greece in the west; Lysimachus supreme in Thrace and portions of Asia Minor, to the north; and Seleucus ruling from Babylonia and Assyria eastward. See Cambridge Ancient History (1928-38), vol. 6, pp. 462, 482, 483, 492, 498, 499, 502.

Then appeared a horn, out of one of them, distinct from the goat's previous four horns, one that from littleness became "exceeding great." It was seen sweeping southward (encompassing Egypt), eastward (absorbing Syria), and embracing Palestine, the "pleasant land" (verse 9). It took on amazing proportions. And this, we believe—in harmony with numerous recognized contemporary, and most past, authorities—symbolized Rome. Rome's pagan and later papal phases are evidently embraced under the one symbol.

This is further evidenced by the fact that chapter 8 parallels the visions of chapters 2 and 7—Daniel 2 setting forth the civil side, and Daniel 7 introducing the religious aspect. And in each of these repeating portrayals the first three world powers—Babylonia, Medo-Persia, and Grecia—were literally and historically followed by the Roman Empire in its pagan and papal phases.* The West now became the seat of the empire,

*We are in agreement with Charles Boutflower (In and Around the Book of Daniel [1923], p. 193), who says: Daniel's Fourth Kingdom is the Roman power: first in its earlier stage as a consular and imperial power, and then in its later stage, when as the 'little horn' it depicted the Papacy."

Adolph Harnack (
What Is Christianity? [1903], p. 270), presses the point that, after the Roman Empire's disappearance, the Roman Church, under the Roman bishop, pushed itself into the place of the Roman World-Empire, of which it is the actual continuation," simply remodeling its form but governing the nations with the pope as overlord, and as the successor of Caesar's Pontifex Maximus.

Gibbon also phrases it well when he suggests that pagan Rome disappeared, only to reappear as papal Rome. Hundreds of able scholars have held the same position.


with Italy occupying the central place. We consequently hold that this horn refers to the greatness and power of Rome.

2. Earthly and Heavenly Sanctuaries Involved.—Because of the striking parallels between the prophecies of Daniel 2, 7, and 8, and because of inescapable historical similarity and continuity between the Roman Empire and the Roman Church, Adventists believe that the "little horn" of Daniel 8:9 represents both pagan and papal Rome.

Accordingly, the activities attributed to this "little horn" in Daniel 8:10-13, 23-25; 11:31; and 12:11 are to be understood as embracing both pagan and papal Rome in their scope.

Inasmuch as the 2300 "days," interpreted as years (see section 6), reach far beyond the time of the earthly sanctuary, we believe they refer to the "greater and more perfect" heavenly sanctuary, of which the earthly was the "figure," described in Hebrews 8 and 9. We also believe that the Hebrew word tamid, the "daily" in the book of Daniel (chs. 8:11-13 and 11:31), denotes the daily, or continual, services of the "sanctuary," inasmuch as the word tamid appears in connection with the sanctuary. We therefore believe that the "sanctuary" of Daniel 8: 11-14 must involve both the earthly and the heavenly sanctuaries. And similarly, the


the daily regular, or "continual," services of both sanctuaries where involved. In like manner, the "transgression of desolation" surely represents the activities of both pagan and papal Rome that render such daily services inoperative or ineffective. Therefore the question "How long?" (of verse 13) and the answer "Unto two thousand and three hundred days" (in verse 14) obviously include both. And by parity of reasoning, the "host" must include both Jews and Christians, during the respective parts of the 2300 prophetic days when each sanctuary is operative.

3. Twofold Taking Away of Daily.—It is obvious that the activities of pagan Rome were concerned primarily with the earthly sanctuary, or Jewish Temple, while those of papal Rome must concern the heavenly sanctuary. Christ Himself applies "the abomination that maketh desolate," of Daniel 11:31, to the desolation of the earthly Temple by the Roman armies in A.D. 70 (Matt. 24:1-3, 15-20; Luke 21:20). But Daniel 11:31 is obviously parallel to Daniel 8:11, 13, as both refer to the sanctuary and its desolation, and to the "daily," or continual, and its being taken away. Christ thus applies Daniel 8:13, 14, in part, to the Temple in Jerusalem.

We therefore believe, first, that the taking away of the "daily" by pagan Rome represents the desolation of the Temple in A.D. 70, with the permanent cessation of its services (see Dan. 8:11, 13; 11:31; compare Matt. 24:1-3, 15-30; Luke 21:20); and second, that the taking away of the "daily" by papal Rome represents the introduction of such papal innovations as a mediating priesthood, the sacrifice of the mass, the confessionals,


and the worship of Mary,* by which it has successfully taken away knowledge of, and reliance upon, the continual ministry of Christ in the heavenly sanctuary, and rendered that ministry inoperative in the lives of millions of professed Christians. (See Heb. 7: 25; 8:1-5; 9:24; etc.)

4. Rome Fulfills Further Specifications.—This application of the "exceeding great" horn to Rome is further confirmed by the fact that Rome fulfilled precisely the other specifications of Daniel 8. For example, Rome "stamped" upon the people of God (Dan. 8:10), relentlessly persecuting them throughout the centuries—in pagan times through tyrants, such as Nero, Domitian, and Diocletian, and just as tragically under the succeeding papal phase. Moreover, pagan Rome stood up against the Prince of princes (verse 25), who we believe to be Christ (compare Acts 3:15; Rev. 1:5), for it was a Roman governor who condemned Jesus, and Roman soldiers who nailed Him to the cross, pierced His side, and placed a Roman seal on His tomb.

Again, Rome in its later papal form trampled and desecrated the provisions of God's sanctuary in heaven, by taking away knowledge of, and dependence upon, Christ's "daily," or continual, ministry as High Priest in the heavenly sanctuary (Heb. 7:25; 1 John 2:1). It has nullified reliance on the true atoning sacrifice of Christ on Calvary, once-for-all and all-sufficient, by substituting and repeating the daily sacrifice of the mass on thousands of earthly altars. It has thus obscured.

*On page 44 of Bishop Fulton J. Sheen's The Eternal Galilean 1954), appear the words: "Dedicated to Mary Mother of God, Queen of the Seven Swords, Advocate of Sinners at the Triune Throne, Daughter of the Father. Mother of the Son, Spouse of the Holy Ghost." (Emphasis supplied).


and mutilated the true worship of God, substituting the compulsory authority and enforced unity of a visible church for the voluntary and true unity of all believers in Christ—His mystical body or church. And it has imposed the authority of the visible pope in place of Christ, who guides and directs His church by His own designated vicegerent or representative, the Holy Spirit (John 14:16, 17; 16:7, 13).

Further, as already indicated, the Papacy has interposed the barrier of a human priesthood between the worshiper and Christ, in place of direct access by all to Christ our great High Priest. And it has instituted and established a system of salvation by human works in place of salvation by faith in Jesus Christ alone, substituting an earthly confessional in place of confession of our sins directly to Christ in His sanctuary in heaven.

In this way the truth concerning the wondrous provisions of redemption, centering in the cross, and made effective by our Lord's ministry in the heavenly sanctuary, were "cast down," as the Papacy loaded truth with tradition and obscured it by perversion, substituting a system that deprived humanity of the direct benefits of Christ's atoning sacrifice and priestly ministry. In this it "practiced and prospered"—practicing its departures and deceptions, and prospering in its venal schemes and aggrandizement of power.

5. "Evening-Morning" a full Day.—In the primary, literal sense, "evening-morning" obviously designated a 24-hour day, for according to Bible reckoning, each 24-hour day begins at sunset and ends at the following sunset (Genesis 1). Thus the dark part of the day, designated "evening," always precedes the light


part of the day, called "morning." And the very fact that in Daniel 8:14 the word for "evening" precedes "morning" inherently implies the same sequence of night and day, and therefore a full 24-hour day, not a half day, as some reckon (and thus make the 2300 days equal 1150 days). If, then, 2300 evenings-mornings meant 2300 days, the period would, if reckoned as symbolic time in this symbolic prophecy, stand for 2300 literal years.

6. Year-Day Principle Applicable.—On the consistency and propriety of applying the year-day principle to the 2300 days of verse 14, we would say: In all symbolic outline prophecies it would appear entirely proper to consider the accompanying time periods as also symbolic. And a symbol invariably stands for something other than itself. In the chapter under scrutiny, the prophetic symbols of nations—portrayed in Daniel 8 by a "ram" and a "goat"—do not stand for a literal ram and goat, but for the Medo-Persian Empire and the Grecian kingdom respectively, as declared to Daniel by the angel in his interpretation. To apply these two obvious symbols to literal animals would be a palpable denial and repudiation of their symbolic character, and of the interpretation given by the angel.

Similarly, we believe that in the symbolic time period given in connection therewith, the 2300 "days" cannot mean 2300 literal days. They must represent some other time unit in fulfillment. To apply them to that same number of days—or half days, as some seek to do—would likewise be to violate and negate their fundamentally symbolic character. Nor are we left in uncertainty as to the intent of this time feature. The


principle to be followed in interpreting symbolic time is: "I [the Lord] have given thee a day for a year" (compare Num. 14:34 and Eze. 4:6). We therefore believe, in harmony with many eminent scholars through the years,* that the 2300 prophetic "days" indicate 2300 literal years in fulfillment, and that anything else, and anything less, would be contrary to the basic principle of time symbolism.

As far back as 1205, an anonymous Joachimite work interpreted the number 2300 as 23 centuries from Daniel's time. Later Villanova recognized the 2300 days as years by the year-day principle. Then in 1440, Roman Catholic theologian Nicholas Krebs of Cusa (Conjectures of Cardinal Nicholas von Cusa Concerning the Last Days), recognized the 2300 prophetic "days" as years, which he even then dated from Persia. This is one of his remarkable declarations:

In the same way it was opened up to Daniel in what way the last curse would be after the sanctuary shall be cleansed and the vision fulfilled; and this after 2300 days from the hour of the going forth of the word . . . according to the predicted number by resolving a day into a year, according to the unfolding made to Ezekiel [4:5, 6].—Translated from Coniectura in Opera, p. 934

It should be added that the chronological or time placement of the 2300 year-days is not given in chapter 8. We are simply told that it was yet "for many days"

*E. B. Elliott, for example (Hora Apocalypticaae, 3d ed., vol. 3, pp. 226, 227), refers to "two most remarkable symbolic actions of that prophet [Ezekiel], which have been so frequently referred to in the year-day controversy by former commentators. He was on one occasion commanded by God to lie 390 days on his left side before the people; thereby to typify, in the symbolic character of their representative, the 390 years of the iniquity and concomitant debasement on the nation of Israel; on another, to lie 40 days on his right side, thereby to typify the 40 last years of Judah's iniquity. And the meaning of these mystical days was declared by God Himself. 'I have laid upon thee the years of their iniquity, according to the number of the days 390 days. I have appointed thee each day for a year.'—A precedent more clear and complete than this could scarce be desired; as a probable key and guide to the meaning of the days in the symbolic visions that we have under consideration."


(verse 26), and that the events at its close would occur far beyond Daniel's time—actually, in the "time of the end" (verse 17). (The dating of the period will be discussed in Questions 25 and 27.

7. "Daily"—Continual Service of Sanctuary.—Daniel 8:11-14 is concerned with the sanctuary—its daily services, desolation, and restoration. The collective word customarily used for the various parts of the daily services—the offerings, incense, lights, et cetera—is tamid, meaning "continual" or "regular" (see Ex. 29:42; 30:7, 8; Lev. 24:2). And tamid is the term rendered "daily" in Daniel 8:11, 12, 13; 11:31; and 12:11. In each instance the word "sacrifice" is supplied by the translators. At first thought, this might not appear to be justified. But when it is remembered that the evening and morning sacrifices marked the evening and morning hours of prayer, incense, and sacrifice, it becomes apparent that the word "sacrifice," while supplied by the translators, was not altogether inappropriate. Scholars maintain that in rabbinical literature* both evening and morning sacrifices are similarly designated by the term tamid, standing alone as in the Hebrew text of Daniel. In view of these facts, the word "evening" may appropriately be understood to mean "evening [sacrifice],"

*The Hebrew word tamid, for "continual," in the books of Numbers and Exodus, is applied to the shewbread, incense, and burnt offering, as well as specifically to the evening and morning sacrifices. However, in later rabbinical usage tamid was used almost exclusively for the evening and morning sacrifices. This is seen in such works as the Talmud—Pesahim 58a, 61a, 63a, 63b, 66b, 73b, 96a; and Sanhedrin 35b and footnote ("By the offering of the Tamid or daily burnt offering"); Sanhedrin 36a, 44b, 49b, 88b, and footnote; Zebahiin 91a ("sprinkles the blood of the tamid").

Rabbi III. Hertz, in The Pentateuch and Haftorahs says:
"The daily continual (Heb. tamid) offering was in later times called 'The Tamid.' Offered throughout the year, it was 'the centre and core of public worship.' "—On Num. 28:2-8 (Soncino ed., London, 1938), p. 694.


and "morning" to mean "morning [sacrifice]," which together constituted one complete cycle of the daily, "regular," or "continual" sanctuary ritual. They are obviously used to indicate that this is the vision concerning the sanctuary. Thus when the angel spoke of 2300 "evenings-mornings," Daniel would naturally understand 2300 tamid units, each made up of an "evening [sacrifice]" and a "morning [sacrifice]." He would not think of half of them as "evening" and half as "morning," making but 1150 complete units, or days. Accordingly, the translation "two thousand and three hundred days" very properly reflects the sense of the Hebrew construction, and of the context.*

In addition to the foregoing reasons, which are primary, we recognize as supporting evidence the fact that the Septuagint—the oldest translation of Daniel—and the Theodotion translation, four centuries later, both place the word "days" immediately following the

*We are here in agreement with Dr. Edward J. Young, Professor of Old Testament, Westminster Theological Seminary (The Prophecy of Daniel, 1949, p. 174), who supports the full-days position:

"It means 2300 days. This interpretation appears in the Greek versions, Jerome, most Protestant expositors and AV [K.J.V.], and appears to be correct. . . . 

"There is no exegetical support for the position that the phrase evening-morning means that the evenings and mornings are to be counted separately, thus 1150 evenings and 1150 days."

Commenting on the paralleling expression "forty days and forty nights," of Genesis 7:4, 12; Exodus 24:18; and 1 Kings 19:8, Young contends that it does not mean twenty days and twenty nights. And the three days and three nights of Jonah 1:17 are not taken as one and one-half days.

Keil states: "We must therefore take the words as they are, i.e., understand them of 2300 whole days."—C. F. Keil and F. Delitzsch, Bible Commentary on the Old Testament. The Book of Daniel the Prophet. p. 304.

Dr. Herbert C. Leopold, Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Capital University Seminary (Exposition of Daniel, 1949, p. 354), also holds the 24-hour day interpretation:

"We have here one of the major cruxes of the whole book: What do the 'two thousand three hundred evenings-mornings' mean? The compound expression is so unusual that it perplexes the reader. Besides, in v. 26 the equivalent expression inserts an 'and' between 'evening and 'morning' and prefixes the article to each of these words. Consequently v. 26 reads, ha'erebh wehabboger; v. 14 'erebh boger. Yet both refer to the same period of time. Though we can cite no Hebrew parallel, the Greek suggests something analogous, namely, the word nuchthemeron, which means 'a night and a day' (II Cor. 11:25) in the sense of a period of twenty-four hours. This is the simplest and most feasible interpretation."


2300 "evenings-mornings" to indicate the intent. "Days" is likewise used in the Vulgate and the Syriac. So also in Luther's German version. It is likewise the consistent rendering of Jewish expositors in the Christian Era, as well as of hundreds of early and later Christian exegetes. The Authorized, or K.J.V., similarly gives "days" in the text, putting "evenings-mornings" in the margin, but retaining the "vision of the evening and the morning" in verse 26. Albert Barnes represents many of the popular commentators when he remarks, "There can be no doubt, however, that a day is intended by this [an evening-morning]."—Notes on Daniel, on Dan. 8:14.

8. Vindication at the Heavenly Assize.—In the light of the foregoing, we believe that the "sanctuary" presented in Daniel 8:11-14 could not refer alone to the Temple at Jerusalem. The sanctuary to be cleansed at the end of the 2300 days is, we understand, the sanctuary in heaven, "which the Lord pitched, and not man" (Heb. 8:2), and of which our triumphant, risen, and ascended Lord Jesus Christ is the great High Priest (Heb. 8:1). It is that "temple of God" which the prophet saw in heaven (Rev. 11:19; 15:5). This, we believe, is the temple that not only is to be "cleansed" (Dan. 8:14), but is also to be "justified" (margin), "put right," "vindicated," as will be noted shortly.

The typical services of the earthly sanctuary served as the "example and shadow of heavenly things" (Heb. 8:5). Now in the wilderness tabernacle and in the Temple later there were daily and yearly services. And we understand that the work of Christ, upon His ascension and inauguration as our heavenly high priest,


was foreshadowed by the daily service in the earthly type. This was the first phase of His heavenly ministry, mediating and applying the atoning sacrifice He had completed on the cross.

This daily service of the earthly sanctuary, involving the morning and the evening sacrifice—the tamid (Hebrew), or "continual "—fitly foreshadowed the continual efficacy of the sacrifice of Christ our Lord, accomplished on Calvary's cross. The risen Christ, our ministering high priest, "ever liveth to make intercession" (Heb. 7:25) for us. Hence we understand His heavenly ministry to be the mediation of His complete and ever-efficacious atonement, which He made and completed on the cross for man, applying that atonement to the individual sinner as he accepts Christ as his personal Saviour.

But the annual Day of Atonement service (described in Leviticus 16) typified the second and final phase of Christ's high priestly ministry, a work involving judgment. And we believe that we are now living in that time of judgment. It should be added that, in harmony with the Arminian concept of personal responsibility to God, our understanding of the Scriptures leads us to believe that the life record of every individual will be examined, and sentence of judgment pronounced on every case under review. (This is more fully discussed in Question 36.)

Not only does this final judgment involve the verdict of all cases before the bar of God, but it results in the justification of God's character before all intelligences of the universe. It demonstrates for all eternity the groundlessness and falsity of Satan's charges against


the character and government and law of God, and the justice and equity of God in deciding that those who have accepted the provisions of redemption shall constitute the citizens of His eternal kingdom and that all impenitent sinners shall be barred. The purpose of the judgment, of course, is not to enlighten God, but to satisfy forever the minds of all created intelligences, angels and mankind.

The universal verdict will be: "Just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints" (Rev. 15:3); "Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus" (Rev. 16:5); and "Even so, Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments" (Rev. 16:7). Thus by the verdicts of the judgment of the heavenly sanctuary will the character of God be forever vindicated, as the climax of the "hour of his judgment" (Rev. 14:7).

9. Intent of Term "Cleansed"—The significance of the various terms used by translators to indicate the full intent of the "cleansing" (Hebrew, tsadaq) of the heavenly sanctuary (Dan. 8:14) should not be lost. Eleven different renderings appear in standard translations. These are: (a) "Cleansed" (Septuagint, Rheims-Douay, Moulton, Boothroyd, Spurrell, Martin, Vulgate, Harkavy, Ray, Knox, Noyes, French-Osterwald, Segond, and Lausanne—the K.J.V. and A.R.V.); (b) "be justified" (Leeser; Sawyer; A.R.V., margin; K.J.V., margin); (c) "be victorious" (Margolis); (d) "be righted" (Smith-Goodspeed); (e) "[be] declared right" (Young); (f) "be restored to its rightful state" (R.S.V.); (g) "be made righteous" (Van Ess); (h) "be restored" (Moffatt); (i) "be sanctified" (Fenton); (j) "be


vindicated" (Rotheram); and (k) "be consecrated" (Luther). See Problems in Bible Translation (Review and Herald), pp. 174, 175.

Standard lexicographers agree in rendering tsadaq as "to be just," "to be righteous." Gesenius' Lexicon (Brown, Driver, and Briggs edition) adds, "be put right," or "be put in rightful condition." And the R.S.V. renders the clause, "Then the sanctuary shall be restored to its rightful state." The translation "to cleanse" is evidently borrowed from the Septuagint (katharisthesetai), followed by the Vulgate (mundabitur). We recognize that the justifying, vindicating, and making righteous of the Levitical sanctuary was accomplished by the services on the Day of Atonement, when the sanctuary was cleansed from all defilement (Lev. 16:16).

This cleansing, however, was definitely included, for in Leviticus 16:16 an "atonement" was made, in this sense, for the children of Israel because of their "uncleanness." On that day the "iniquities of the children of Israel" were removed (verse 21). The antitype of that service, we believe, will be found in connection with Christ's ministry in the heavenly sanctuary, and this is apparent from Hebrews 9:23* 

It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified [katharizo] with these; but the heavenly things themselves [shall be purified] with better sacrifices than these [that of the Lamb of God].

*Brooke Foss Westcott (Epistle to the Hebrews, 1892, p. 270) makes this significant comment on Hebrews 9:23: 

"The fact that such a mode of purifying by blood was enjoined for the material instruments of worship carried with it the inevitable consequence that some analogous and therefore some nobler purification should be provided for the divine archetypes." "The whole structure of the sentence requires that 'cleansed' should be supplied in the second clause from the first."


Such is our understanding of the larger and wider concept of God's great plan of saving men, as revealed in Daniel 8, for since our Lord's death, resurrection, and ascension, the heavenly sanctuary is now the center of Christ's wondrous priestly work of intercession. The sanctuary on earth with its types and shadows has passed. But in heaven Christ carries out His work of mediation that culminates in the work of judgment. We therefore conclude that His mediation embraces both the ministering of Calvary's atoning sacrifice to every soul who accepts the provisions of His grace, and the ultimate elimination of sin from the universe of God. Thus this ministry will, we believe, eventuate in the purgation or destruction of everything connected with evil—Satan, its author, and his cohorts (Matt. 25:41; Heb. 2:14), death (1 Cor. 15:26), and the works of the devil (1 John 3:8; compare Rev. 20:10, 14).

At Issue Index   Table of Contents   Previous   Next